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           Previous Section – Early dynastic coinages Peripheral region

 

1895.01

1895.01

1895 - 01    RVIIS or RVES    15 B.C.-10 A.D. VR
Bronze Unit    1.9 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) RVIIS in tablet
     2) ring above and below
     3) bezel around edge

REV: Griffin left
Identifying points:
     1) exergue line below griffin
     2) three pellets below griffin

CLASSIFICATION: Trinovantian S

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Mack was uncertain what the animal was, better centred examples                      now show it to be a griffin.

The "Interregnum"

The Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian "Interregnum" 10 B.C. – 10 A.D.

 

The term "Interregnum" is arbitrarily given to to the period between the coinages of Tasciovanus and Cunobeline. A ten to twenty year time gap has traditionally been identified between the two reigns. No explanation of the events of this period has been universally accepted, and the entire subject remains one of controversy.

 

Trinovantes/Catuvellauni

The period started with new inscriptions, SEGO and DIAS, added to Tasciovanus' name on the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage. As this occurred, the stater's weight was reduced from 5.60 to 5.40 grammes. About this time, a new coinage appeared with the inscription ANDOCO (generally accepted as a name). The ANDOCO staters were struck to the new lighter weight and one ANDOCO coin also had the inscription TAS. As a final complication, new coins appeared with the inscription RVIIS. Allen noted the RVIIS coins were very close in style to those of Tasciovanus (139).

1890.01

1890 - 01    RVIIS or RVES    15 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    2.4 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Lion right
Identifying points:
     1) lion in bezel
     2) RVII or RVEI around lion

REV: Eagle
Identifying points:
     1) eagle stands with spread wings
     2) RVII above eagle

CLASSIFICATION: Trinovantian S

NOTES: Obverse adapted from a Roman denarius of Mark Anthony.
                Reverse adapted from a Roman denarius of Augustus.
                Kretz has convincingly argued all varieties of this type carry a legend                      RVII on the reverse.

1860.01

1860 - 01    ANDOCO    15 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Crossed wreaths
Identifying points:
     1) two crescents back to back
     2) four pellet-in-ring motifs near crescents
     3) wreaths extend from centre
     4) pellets, outline crescents and pellet-in-ring motifs in field 5) two faces          hidden in design

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) blundered copy of bucranium above horse
     2) anemone above horse
     3) ANDO below and in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Trinovantian Q

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Many in museums.
               Modern forgery exists, see 1860 - 01F, also plated modern forgery                       struck from same dies, see 1860 - 03F. No genuine ancient plated                       version known, catalogue number 1860 - 03 reserved, if one should                       be found.
               A careful inspection of the plate coin reveals no trace of pellets                      between the back-to-back crescents on the obverse. The coin has                      been well-struck from sufficiently well-preserved dies to make this                      statement. Suggestions that all examples have pellets between the                      crescents are wrong.

1877.01

1877 - 01    DIAS    15 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) two interlaced squares
     2) tablet with DIAS in centre
     3) letter 'C' above tablet
     4) letter 'O' below tablet

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) curve above horse
     2) VIR below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Trinovantian R

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Verulamium mint.

1845.01

1845 - 01    SEGO    15 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) cross-in-ring motifs above and below tablet
     2) four pellets around tablet
     3) four rings around tablet
     4) TASCIO in tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rider brandishes carnyx
     2) four-spoked wheel behind horse
     3) SEGO in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Trinovantian P

NOTES: Most in museums.
               Standard weight given.

Allen, 1944

Allen suggested that all these new coins filled the gap before the coinage of Cunobeline (140). In 1989, a tentative chronological order for the inscriptions was suggested using the observation that gold coins and then silver ones went out of circulation (141).

Van Arsdell, 1989a
Allen, 1944 – see time line table

Since 1989, there have been many efforts to refine our understanding (73). The inscriptions SEGO, ANDOCO, DIAS and RVIIS have been variously suggested as personal names, epithets, titles and mint-sites. The dating and typology of the coins has also been studied. Yet to date, no single hypothesis explaining the events of the time gap has been accepted by everyone.

de Jersey, 1998c, 2001b, 2002b, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d

Kretz, 2002, 2006, 2007

Allen's 1944 suggestion – to list the coins inscribed SEGO, ANDOCO, DIAS and RVIIS to a twenty year gap between Tasciovanus and Cunobeline – still remains our best explanation. Given the intense scrutiny devoted to these coins over the last 25 years, there may not be a better one. Should one emerge in the future, it will become necessary to revise our interpretation of this period.

The coins closest in style to those of Tasciovanus are those inscribed SEGO, struck in gold, silver and copper. Next, probably appeared the coins with the name ANDOCO. Andoco's staters were copied from the earliest type staters of Tasciovanus, but were struck to the lighter weight-standard of the Interregnum. Allen noted the die cutter who engraved the dies was either copying from a poorly-preserved coin or was unfamiliar with the details of the design because he blundered the bucranium above the horse (142). The coins inscribed DIAS, in silver and bronze, and finally RVIIS, only in bronze, followed.

Allen, 1944

 

Cantii

In Cantian territory, the coinage of Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent ceased, replaced by that of a short-lived ruler Vosenos. Soon Vosenos disappeared, and coins of an Atrebatic/Regnan/Belgic ruler, Eppillus, circulated in fairly large quantities. The Eppillus pieces carried new designs, one with a winged victory; interestingly none of these carried the Calleva mint signature.

431.01

431 - 01    Eppillus Victory Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Victory left
Identifying points:
     1) victory hold wreath in left hand
     2) wreath border has leaves pointing in counter-clockwise direction

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rider holds carnyx over his shoulder
     2) EPPI.COM below horse
     3) F above EPPI.COM

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Most in museums.

185.01

185 - 01    Vosenos    10-5 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm    1.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with pronounced bands
Identifying points:
     1) three pronounced, raised bands

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif above horse's rump
     2) ring with six-pointed star above horse
     3) pellet under neck and tail
     4) inscription under horse VOSII
     5) two pellet-in-ring motifs above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian M

NOTES: Typical weight given.

Speculatively, some turmoil in Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian territory may have given the Cantii an opportunity to change their ruler. The Atrebates/Regni/Belgae may have then seized the opportunity to exert their influence in Kent, while the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni were preoccupied with internal problems.

 

Iceni

The Iceni began to strike silver coins with the inscription ANTED, and even issued a small number of gold staters with this inscription. Although the gold staters were short-lived, the inscribed silver issues endured. Evidently the Iceni gained increased independence from Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian influence, or at least received some concession during the time of trouble.

705.01

705 - 01    ANTED    20-35 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.4 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Triple-crescent pattern
Identifying points:
     1) three outline crescents in centre with points facing outwards
     2) pellet between points of adjacent points
     3) curved lines and pellets design at border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) anemone motif in ring above horse
     2) pellet above and below horse, and below tail
     3) ANTED monogram below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian G

NOTES: Only one obverse and one reverse die recorded.
                Typical weight given, this is the likely standard weight, also.

711.01

711 - 01    ANTED    20-35 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.25 gms.    12-15 mm

Earliest Record: Stukeley, 1776

OBV: Double crescent emblem
Identifying points:
     1) as 710 - 01

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 710 - 01, except for form of monogram
     2) ANTD monogram below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian G

NOTES: Many retained in museums

 

Atrebates/Regni/Belgae

In Atrebatic/Regnan/Belgic territory, Tincommius disappeared, replaced by a new ruler named Eppillus, who styled himself "REX" (king). Both Tincommius and Dubnovellaunus (probably the Kentish one) appeared in Rome about this time appealing to Augustus for aid.

415.01

415 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

OBV: Crescent with inscription
Identifying points:
     1) outline crescent, points upwards, in centre
     2) REX above crescent
     3) CALLE below crescent
     4) daisy on either side of crescent
     5) pellet border

REV: Eagle right
Identifying points:
     1) eagle's wing spread
     2) EPP above eagle's tail
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
               Mack transposed the obverse and reverse designations. The crescent is                      on the convex side and the eagle on the concave.
               Variety with obverse legend REX CALL awaits metallurgical analysis                      to verify authenticity. Catalogue number 415 - 03 reserved for the                      REX CALL type.
               Obverse adapted from a denarius of L. Lucretius Trio.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of Cn. Nerius or Augustus                     Turpilianus.

By 10 A.D., the troubled period had passed and Cunobeline held the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. The coinages with the inscriptions ANDOCO, SEGO, DIAS and RVIIS ended abruptly and the Atrebatic/Regnan/Belgic coins disappeared from Kent. The Cantian coinage had come to an end with Vosenos, never to be reinstated and the coins of Cunobeline became the normal coinage of Kent from this time on. Cunobeline evidently drove the Atrebates/Regni/Belgae from Cantian territory after consolidating his rule. The Atrebates/Regni/Belgae, as the historical record shows, were subsequently placed on the defensive by the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni until the situation became serious enough to provide an excuse for Roman intervention in 43 A.D.

 

                          Next Section – Later coinages Introduction

 

 

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