Celtic Coinage of Britain

third edition

Click on coin to see hidden information

 

 

 

 

Plate 17

Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    (Info)

 

 

Second Coinage of Tincomarus    (Info)    (Info)

Gold Coins

V375-01V376-01V376-03V378-01V379-01

 

 

 

Second Coinage of Tincomarus    Silver Coins

V381-01V381-03V382-01V383-10V383-05V383-07V384-01 new now 488-01

 

 

 

Third Coinage of Tincomarus    (Info)

Gold and Silver Coins

V385-01V387-01V388-01V389-01V390-01V396-01V397-01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coinage of Tincomarus

 

The next name appearing on the coins is Tincomarus. His rule, lasting about 25 years, ended during the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. Tincomarus afterwards appears in Rome seeking assistance from Augustus – evidently he had been deposed. The historical Tincomarus, mentioned on the Monumentum Ancyranum (constructed about 7 A.D.) has traditionally been associated with the Atrebatic coins.

 

Tincomarus' coinage is divided into three periods based on the stater types. The corresponding quarter staters and silver coins are assigned according to their inscriptions and on typological grounds. The more Romanized designs on the silver are assigned to the later periods.

 

Originally, this ruler was known as Tincommius, however, a more complete inscription on an Alton Hoard coin has provided a better reading of the name.

 

 

 

Tincomarus Second Coinage

 

Mack indicated the mounted warrior theme on the following staters is probably adapted from Roman denarii of the Crepusia family. The C.F. inscription is an abbreviation for Commius Filius.

 

Simon Bean suggests the tablet motif is adapted from counterstamps on roman coins. This cannot be proven, and the dating of the Roman counterstamped coins is problematic. However, if the suggestion were true, the coins could be dated five years later than the dates given in this catalogue.

 

 

 

 

375 - 01     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Scarce

Gold Stater    5.3 gms.     16 mm

 

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) TINC in tablet

 

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right

Identifying points:

    1) warrior holds spear

    2) six pointed star above horse's head

    3) C F with pellets below horse

    4) exergual line below horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Typical weight given

  - Some in museums

  - Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius

 

 

 

V375-01

375 - 01     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Scarce

Gold Stater    5.3 gms.     16 mm

 

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) TINC in tablet

 

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right

Identifying points:

    1) warrior holds spear

    2) six pointed star above horse's head

    3) C F with pellets below horse

    4) exergual line below horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Typical weight given

  - Some in museums

  - Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius

 

 

 

V376-01

376 - 01     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Very Rare

Gold Stater    4.9 gms.

 

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) TINC in tablet

 

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right

Identifying points:

    1) as 375 - 01 but no star above horse's head

   2) large C in C F

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Weight of one example given, not believed to be typical

 

 

 

V376-03

376 -03     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Very Rare

Gold Stater    17 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) as 376 - 01, but TINCO in tablet

 

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right

Identifying points:

    1) as 376 - 01, but no inscription

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

 

 

 

V378-01

378 - 01    Tincomarus Medusa Type

25-20 B.C.      Rare

Gold Quarter Stater    1.0 gm    10 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) TINC on tablet

    2) C above tablet

    3) A below tablet

    4) pellet border

 

REV: Medusa head

Identifying points:

    1) head faces viewer

    2) pellet border

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Some in museums

  - Typical weight given

  - Many found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer that originally thought

  - Mack suggested a variety with B below the tablet may exist

  - "C A" may indicate Calleva mint

  - Reverse adapted from a denarius of L. Cornelius Lentulus

 

 

 

V379-01

379 - 01     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Very Rare

Gold Quarter Stater    1.1 gms.    9 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans. 1890

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) TIN on tablet

 

REV: Celticized horse left

Identifying points:

    1) three pointed star above horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than thought

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Typical weight given

  - Some in museums

 

 

 

V381-01

381 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Rare

Silver Unit    12 mm

 

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

 

OBV: Celticized head right

Identifying points:

    1) head has laurel wreath

    2) short lines for hair

 

REV: Celticized bull right

Identifying points:

    1) Bull rears on hind legs

    2) TIN above bull

    3) pellet-in-ring motif below bull

    4) bull's head faces

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTE:

  - Some in museums

 

 

 

V381-03

381 - 03    Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Very Rare

AR Unit    12 mm

 

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

 

OBV: Celticized head right

Identifying points:

    1) as 381 - 01, but cruder head

 

REV: Celticized bull right

Identifying points:

    1) Bull butting

    2) Tl above bull

    3) NC below bull

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Type possibly from Wanborough, now known to be commoner than previously thought

  - Not authenticated via metallurgical analysis, but appears genuine

 

 

 

V382-01

382 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Extremely Rare

Silver Unit    13 mm

 

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975 (Chichester, 1969 find)

 

OBV: Inscription

Identifying points:

    1) TINC around central pellet

 

REV: Animal left

Identifying points:

    1) animal prancing

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer that originally thought

 

 

 

V383-01

383 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Very Rare

Silver Minim    0.4 gms.    9 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

 

OBV: Geometric pattern

Identifying points:

    1) two interlocking squares

    2) squares have inwardly-curved sides

    3) 'C.F' in centre

 

REV: Animal right

Identifying points:

    1) animal probably a boar or dog

    2) T I above animal

    3) N C below animal

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

NOTES:

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than originally thought

  - Simon Bean suggests the reverse image is adapted from coins of Augustus

 

 

 

V383-05

383 - 05     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Extremely Rare

Silver Minim    0.4 gms.    9 mm

 

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

 

OBV: Geometric pattern

Identifying points:

    1) two interlocking squares

    2) C O inside squares

    3) pellet border

    4) pellets in angles

 

REV: Bull right

Identifying points:

    1) bull butting right

    2) Tl above bull

 

CLASSIFlCATION: Atrebatic E

 

 

 

 

V383-07

383 - 07     Tincomarus Second Coinage

25-20 B.C.      Extremely Rare

Silver Minim    8 mm

 

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell,1989

 

OBV: Letter C in box

Identifying points:

    1) C with pellet to right, all inside box

    2) box has curved sides

    3) box-with-pellet above and below central box

    4) pellet on each side of central box

 

REV: Bull right

Identifying points:

    1) bull butting

    2) TIN above bull

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

 

 

 

 

388 - 01 now reattributed as 488 - 01

 

A better preserved example now shows the legend to be that of Verica.

 

Go to 488 - 01

 

 

 

V385-01

385 - 01     Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Common

Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    18 mm

 

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) COM.F in tablet

 

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right

Identifying points:

    1) warrior holds spear

    2) star and three pellets behind horse and rider

    3) TIN below horse

    4) pellet border

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Standard weight estimated, the true standard is probably 0.1 to 0.2 grammes heavier

  - Most are in museums

  - Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius

  - Possible Gold/Bronze plated core of 385 - 01 recorded in Stukeley, 1776, plate 22, number 2

 

 

 

 

V387-01

387 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.       Extremely Rare

Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.     8 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) COMF in tablet

 

REV: Celticized bull right

Identifying points:

    1) TI below bull

    2) N above bull

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Some in museums

  - Typical weight given

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than originally thought

 

 

 

V388-01

388 - 01     Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Very Rare

Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    8 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1980

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) COMF in tablet

 

REV: Celticized horse left

Identifying points:

    1) Tl above horse

    2) C below horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Typical weight given

  - Many found at Wanborough.

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than originally thought

 

 

 

V389-01

389 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Extremely Rare

Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.

 

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) COM in tablet

 

REV: Celticized horse left

Identifying points:

    1) T above horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Most in museums

  - Typical weight given

  - Some reported from Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than originally thought

 

 

 

V390-01

390 - 01    Tincommius Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Rare

Gold Quarter Stater     1.1 gms.    10 mm

 

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

 

OBV: Inscribed tablet

Identifying points:

    1) COMF in tablet

 

REV: Celticized horse right

Identifying points:

    1) TIN above horse

    2) C below horse

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Some in museums

  - Typical weight given

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate about as rare as originally thought

 

 

 

V396-01

396 - 01     Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Very rare

Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    11 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

 

OBV: Romanized head left

Identifying points:

    1) head beardless, laureate

 

REV: Bull charging left

Identifying points:

    1) TIN above bull

    2) C below bull

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Some found at Wanborough

  - Celtic Coin Index indicates rarer than originally thought

 

 

 

V397-01

397 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage

20-10 B.C.      Scarce

Silver Unit    1.0-1.3 gms.    10 mm

 

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

 

OBV: Romanized head right

Identifying points:

    1) TINCOM in front of face

    2) head laureate and beardless

 

REV: Eagle

Identifying points:

    1) eagle stands with spread wings

 

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

 

NOTES:

  - Many found at Wanborough

  - Mack indicated the coin was copied from a coin of Augustus

  - Both obverse and reverse adapted from denarii of Augustus.

  - Celtic Coin Index records indicate rarer than originally thought

 

 

 

Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

 

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name Venta Belgarum to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

 

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae. These have been largely, but not entirely, based on reports of new types of silver coins published in numismatic trade lists since 1994. The coins do not appear to form a coherent issue of a single issuing authority and questions exist regarding their precise status. These enigmatic coins demand careful analysis and reflection before they are accepted as evidence for a Belgic coinage. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after a rigorous analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

 

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and the Atrebates may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

 

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

 

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

 

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

 

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. Other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified. Plausible mint sites for separate Belgic or Regnan coinages have not been identified.

Copyright R. D. Van Arsdell 2017