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Plate 17     Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    <info 1>    < 2 >

Page 2

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. The other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified.

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Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name "Venta Belgarum" to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae based on new silver types reported since 1994. These enigmatic coins need careful analysis and reflection. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after the analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and they may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

Continued….

 

Second Coinage of Tincomarus    Gold Coins    <info>    <info>

Coinage of Tincomarus

The next name appearing on the coins is Tincomarus. His rule, lasting about 25 years, ended during the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. Tincomarus afterwards appears in Rome seeking assistance from Augustus—evidently he had been deposed. The historical Tincomarus, mentioned on the Monumentum Ancyranum (constructed about 7 A.D.) has traditionally been associated with the Atrebatic coins.

Tincomarus' coinage is divided into three periods based on the stater types. The corresponding quarter staters and silver coins are assigned according to their inscriptions and on typological grounds. The more Romanized designs on the silver are assigned to the later periods.

Originally, this ruler was known as Tincommius, however, a more complete inscription on an Alton Hoard coin has provided a better reading of the name.

Tincomarus Second Coinage

Mack indicated the mounted warrior theme on the following staters is probably adapted from Roman denarii of the Crepusia family. The C.F. inscription stands for Commius Filius.

Simon Bean suggests the tablet motif is adapted from counterstamps on roman coins. This cannot be proven, and the dating of the Roman counterstamped coins is problematic. However, if the suggestion were true, the coins could be dated five years later than the dates given in this catalogue.

 

 

375.01376.01376.03378.01379.01

376.03

376 -03    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) as 376 - 01, but TINCO in tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 376 - 01, but no inscription

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Existing example in Museum.

379.01

379 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    R
Gold Quarter Stater    1.1 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans. 1890

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) TIN on tablet

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) three pointed star above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Some found at Wanborough.
               Typical weight given.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

378.01

378 - 01    Tincomarus Medusa Type    25-20 B.C.    S
Gold Quarter Stater    1.0 gm    10 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) TINC on tablet
     2) C above tablet
     3) A below tablet
     4) pellet border

REV: Medusa head
Identifying points:
     1) head faces viewer
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.
               Mack suggested variety with B below the tablet may exist.
               "C A" may indicate Calleva mint.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of L. Cornelius Lentulus.

376.01

376 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    VR
Gold Stater    4.9 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) TINC in tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 375 - 01 but no star above horse's head
     2) large C in C F

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Weight of one example given.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

375 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    VR
Gold Stater    5.3 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) TINC in tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds spear
     2) six pointed star above horse's head
     3) C F with pellets below horse
     4) exergual line below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Most in museums.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

 

Second Coinage of Tincomarus    Silver Coins

381.01381.03382.01383.01383.05383.07384.01 new

A better preserved example now shows the legend to be that of Verica.
383.07

383 - 07    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell,1989

OBV: Letter C in box
Identifying points:
     1) C with pellet to right, all inside box
     2) box has curved sides
     3) box-with-pellet above and below central box
     4) pellet on each side of central box

REV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) bull butting
     2) TIN above bull

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

383.05

383 - 05    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
Silver Minim    0.4 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) two interlocking squares
     2) C O inside squares
     3) pellet border
     4) pellets in angles

REV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) bull butting right
     2) Tl above bull

CLASSIFlCATION: Atrebatic E

383.01

383 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    R
Silver Minim    0.4 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) two interlocking squares
     2) squares have inwardly-curved sides
     3) 'C.F' in centre

REV: Animal right
Identifying points:
     1) animal probably a boar or dog
     2) T I above animal
     3) N C below animal

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.
               Simon Bean suggests the reverse image is adapted from coins of                     Augustus.

381.03

381 - 03    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
AR Unit    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) as 381 - 01, but cruder head

REV: Celticized bull right
Identifying points:
     1) Bull butting
     2) Tl above bull
     3) NC below bull

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E.

NOTES: Type possibly from Wanborough, could be commoner than indicated.
               Not authenticated via metallurgical analysis, but appears genuine.

382.01

382 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    C
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975 (Chichester, 1969 find)

OBV: Inscription
Identifying points:
     1) TINC around central pellet

REV: Animal left
Identifying points:
     1) animal prancing

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

381.01

381 - 01    Tincomarus Second Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) head has laurel wreath
     2) short lines for hair

REV: Celticized bull right
Identifying points:
     1) Bull rears on hind legs
     2) TIN above bull
     3) pellet-in-ring motif below bull
     4) bull's head faces

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic E

NOTE: Most in museums.

 

Third Coinage of Tincomarus    Gold and Silver Coins    <info>

Tincomarus Third Coinage

On Tincomarus' third coinage, the ruler emphatically proclaims to be the son of Commius. Possibly, a weakening grip on the rule prompted this claim of legitimacy.

385.01387.01388.01389.01390.01396.01397.01

397.01

397 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    C
Silver Unit    1.0-1.3 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Romanized head right
Identifying points:
     1) TINCOM in front of face
     2) head laureate and beardless

REV: Eagle
Identifying points:
     1) eagle stands with spread wings

CLASSIFICATl()N: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Mack indicated the coin was copied from a coin of Augustus.
                Both obverse and reverse adapted from denarii of Augustus.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

396.01

396 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    C
Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    11 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Romanized head left
Identifying points:
     1) head beardless, laureate

REV: Bull charging left
Identifying points:
     1) TIN above bull
     2) C below bull

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

390.01

390 - 01    Tincommius Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    R
Gold Quarter Stater    1.1 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in tablet

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) TIN above horse
     2) C below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Some in museums.
                Typical weight given.
                Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.

389.01

389 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    VR
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COM in tablet

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) T above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Typical weight given.
                Some reported from Wanborough.
                Rarity provided via trade survey
.

388.01

388 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    C
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1980

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in tablet

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) Tl above horse
     2) C below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

387.01

387 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage     20-10 B.C.     R
Gold Quarter Stater     1.2 gms.     8 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in tablet

REV: Celticized bull right
Identifying points:
     1) TI below bull
     2) N above bull

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Typical weight given.
               Some found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

385.01

385 - 01    Tincomarus Third Coinage    20-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

OBV: Inscribed tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COM.F in tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds spear
     2) star and three pellets behind horse and rider
     3) TIN below horse
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic F

NOTES: Standard weight given, same comment as for 350 - 01.
               Most in museums.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius.

 

 

 

 

 

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