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Plate 18     Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    <info 1>   < 2 >

Page 2

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. The other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified.

Page 1

Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name "Venta Belgarum" to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae based on new silver types reported since 1994. These enigmatic coins need careful analysis and reflection. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after the analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and they may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

Continued….

 

Eppillus Calleva Types  Gold Coins  Atrebatic G  <info>

The Coinage of Eppillus

Eppillus' coins are divided into two distinct issues, the Calleva types and the Kentish types. Eppillus assumed the Atrebatic/Regnan leadership after Tmcommius had been deposed and exiled about the time of the Trinovantian/ Catuvellaunian Interregnum. Sometime after 10 B.C., Trinovantian/Catuvelluanian power was rendered ineffective by the tribe's internal problems and Eppillus decided to test its strength by invading Kent.

The Cantii had used Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coins for some time issuing few of their own. Now, a new series appeared carrying the name Eppillus. Eppillus also issued a victory stater in Kent, supporting the idea of a military incursion. By 10 A.D., Cunobeline assumed leadership of the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni and proceeded to drive Eppillus from Kent. Eppillus disappeared about this time, he was probably killed during the incursion in Cantian territory.

The Calleva types, all struck at Silchester, are the normal Atrebatic/Regnan coins of Eppillus. The Kentish types constitute an emergency coinage struck to finance military operations.

405.01407.01408.01409.01

409.01

409 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    R
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Crescent with inscription
Identifying points:
     1) crescent in centre
     2) COMM.F.EPPILLV. around crescent

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) six pointed star above and below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Typical weight given.
                Some found at Wanborough.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

408.01

408 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    R
Gold Quarter stater    1.2 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in pellet border
Identifying points:
     1) as 407 - 01

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 407 - 01
     2) ring above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.
                Typical weight given.

407.01

407 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    C
Gold Quarter stater    1.0-1.2 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Inscription in pellet border
Identifying points:
     1) CALLE
     2) six pointed star above and below inscription

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above horse
     2) daisy below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Typical weight given.
                Modern forgery exists—see 407 -01F.

405.01

405 - 01    Eppillus Early Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Celticized head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) spike made up of lines and pellets
     2) wreath: leaves downwards

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above horse
     2) COMMI F below horse
     3) three ringed object above horse reminiscent of the Llyn Cerrig Bach               gang-chain
     4) four-spoked wheel below horse
     5) triple tail on horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Weight of recorded example given.
                A most exceptional coin. The die-cutting and striking appear to be                      correct for Atrebatic/Regnan work of the time, and the colour                      appears correct.
                Metallurgical data recently confirms authenticity of this coin.

 

Eppillus Calleva Types    Silver Coins    Atrebatic G

415.01416.01417.01420.01421.01423.01423.01

A better-preserved example now shows the legend "VERICA" on the obverse.
422.01

422 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C. 10 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Bull's head facing
Identifying points:
     1) pellet above and on each side of bull's head
     2) pellet border

REV: Ram right
Identifying points:
     1) EPP above ram

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.
                Type appears genuine, awaits metallurgical analysis to establish                      authenticity.

421.01

421 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C. 10 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Spiral pattern
Identifying points:
     1) four armed spiral
     2) four pellets in each angle
     3) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     4) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) EPP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
                Type appears genuine, awaits metallurgical analysis to establish                      authenticity.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

420.01

420 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Floral pattern
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) U's with line in centre, pointing outwards around edge
     3) pellet between U's
     4) pellet border

REV: Eagle right
Identifying points:
     1) eagle as on 415 - 01
     2) EPPI in front of eagle
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
                Type appears genuine, awaits metallurgical analysis to establish                      authenticity.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

417.01

417 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.- 10 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) similar head to that on 416 - 01
     2) beard made up of strokes
     3) pellet border

REV: Lion right
Identifying points:
     1) lion stands on exergual line
     2) EPP above lion
     3) COM below exergual line
     4) F in front of lion

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Previously, this type was listed by Mack as a Kentish type, but many                      of these and similar types have recently been found in the normal                      tribal area. Reverse adapted from a denarius of Mark Anthony

.

416.01

416 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) beard made up of pellets
     2) vine border

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above boar
     2) three pellets after EPPI
     3) COM below boar
     4) F above COM
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.

415.01

415 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

OBV: Crescent with inscription
Identifying points:
     1) outline crescent, points upwards, in centre
     2) REX above crescent
     3) CALLE below crescent
     4) daisy on either side of crescent
     5) pellet border

REV: Eagle right
Identifying points:
     1) eagle's wing spread
     2) EPP above eagle's tail
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic G

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
               Mack transposed the obverse and reverse designations. The crescent is                      on the convex side and the eagle on the concave.
               Variety with obverse legend REX CALL awaits metallurgical analysis                      to verify authenticity. Catalogue number 415 - 03 reserved for the                      REX CALL type.
               Obverse adapted from a denarius of L. Lucretius Trio.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of Cn. Nerius or Augustus                     Turpilianus.

 

Eppillus Kentish Types    Gold Coins    Atrebatic H

430.01431.01435.01436.01437.01

437.01

437 - 01    Eppillus Kentish Type    10 B.C-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    1.3 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in ring
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in ring
     2) ring made up of large pellets

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above horse
     2) flower below horse
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Typical weight given.

436.01

436 - 01    Eppillus Kentish Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    1.5 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Crossed wreaths
Identifying points:
     1) one of the crossed wreaths has leaves inwards
     2) EPPI in angles of wreaths

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) ring and three pellets above horse
     2) pellet below horse
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Typical weight given.

435.01

435 - 01    Eppilus Kentish Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    C
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription
Identifying points:
     1 EPPIL COMF in two lines

REV: Pegasus right
Identifying points:
     1) ring below Pegasus may be a pellet-in-ring motif

CLASSIFICATI()N: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.
               Recent finds indicate this type also circulated in the normal                     Atrebatic/Regnan territory.

431.01

431 - 01    Eppillus Victory Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Victory left
Identifying points:
     1) victory hold wreath in left hand
     2) wreath border has leaves pointing in counter-clockwise direction

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rider holds carnyx over his shoulder
     2) EPPI.COM below horse
     3) F above EPPI.COM

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Most in museums.

430.01

430 - 01    Eppillus Kentish Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in wreath
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in wreath
     2) wreath has leaves pointing in the clockwise direction

REV: Celtic warrior on horse left
Identifying points:
     1) flower below horse
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs in field
     3) six pointed star above horse
     4) EPPILLVS above rider

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Most in museums.

 

Eppillus Kentish Types    Silver and Bronze Coins    Atrebatic H

441.01442.01442.01 another443.01450.01451.01452.01453.01

442.01

442 - 01    Eppillus Victory Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Romanized head left
Identifying points:
     1) head wears diadem
     2) IOVIR in field

REV: Victory right
Identifying points:
     1) E P beside victory
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Most in museums.

453.01

453 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    2.2 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celticized head left
Identifying points:
     1) head bearded
     2) EPPI.C.F. in field

REV: Chariot right
Identifying points:
     1) chariot has two horses
     2) C.F. below chariot

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Many in museums.

452.01

452 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    1.9 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans. 1864

OBV: Romanized head left
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI in front of face
     2) pellet border

REV: Victory left
Identifying points:
     1) victory holds wreath in left hand and standard in right hand
     2) victory stands on exergual line
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Most in museums.

451.01

451 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    2.1-2.5 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above bull
     2) COF below bull
     3) pellet border

REV: Eagle left
Identifying points:
     1) eagle has spread wings
     2) head turned to right
     3) pellet-in-ring motif to left of eagle's feet

CLASSIFICATlON: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Obverse adapted from a denarius of Augustus.

450.01

450 -01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    2.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) large disc in centre
     2) curve-sided square around disc
     3) EP Pl CO MF around square

REV: Eagle
Identifying points:
     1) eagle has spread wings
     2) rings in field

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Most in museums.

443.01

443 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1789 (Gough edition)

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) VIR in front of face
     2) CO behind head

REV: Capricorn left
Identifying points:
     1) EPPI above Capricorn
     2) COMF below Capricorn

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Mack listed the coin twice as 308 and 308a to illustrate different                      portions of the image.
                Obverse adapted from a Roman denarius, but it is not possible to                      identify the emperor precisely.
                Reverse adapted from a denarius of Augustus.

442.01 another

442 - 01    Eppillus Victory Type    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Romanized head left
Identifying points:
     1) head wears diadem
     2) IOVIR in field

REV: Victory right
Identifying points:
     1) E P beside victory
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Most in museums.

441.01

441 - 01    Eppillus    10 B.C.-10 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Romanized head left
Identifying points:
     1) head laureate
     2) EPPIL. in field
     3) pellet border

REV: Celtic warrior riding horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rider carries carnyx
     2) EPPILL below horse
     3) pellet-in-ring motif behind carnyx
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATI()N: Atrebatic H

NOTES: Type probably adapted from a denarius of
                    Augustus

 

 

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