CCB Plate Banner

        

Place cursor over coin to see hidden information

 

<Mobile device – close box>                           Previous Plate    Next Plate

 

Plate 19     Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    <info 1>    < 2 >

Page 2

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. The other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified.

Page 1

Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name "Venta Belgarum" to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae based on new silver types reported since 1994. These enigmatic coins need careful analysis and reflection. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after the analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and they may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

Continued….

 

First Coinage of Verica    Gold    <info>

The Coinage of Verica

Verica replaced Eppillus as leader of Atrebates around 10 A.D.
Cunobeline, after his accession to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian leadership, had driven Eppillus and the Atrebatesfrom Kent. Once Eppillus was deposed—he disappeared completely—peace was restored between the tribes.

Initially, Verica must have been accepted by his more powerful neighbour. By the mid 30's however, he evidently lost the support of Cunobeline. Coins began to appear in the northern part of Atrebatic territory carrying the name Epaticcus, who styled himself a son of Tasciovanus. This leader, a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer if not actually a relative of Cunobeline's, soon expanded his influence in Verica's territory. Verica was ultimately deposed by the encroacher and undoubtedly was the Berikos who fled to Rome on the eve of 43 A.D. Verica's appeal for Roman military intervention prompted the Claudian invasion the following year.

Verica struck three successive coinages, distinguished by the types of the staters. The First Coinage staters show a tablet with COMF on the obverse and a mounted warrior with the inscription VIR on the reverse. The Second Coinage staters are almost identical, but add the title REX to the reverse. The third coinage introduces a new design to the obverse, a vine leaf with VI RI on the sides. All three coinages include quarter staters, silver units and silver minims. No bronze coins have been identified and it is likely Verica struck only gold and silver.

460.01461.01465.01466.01467.01468.01

468.01

468 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A .D.    C
Gold Quarter Stater    1.3 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Inscription and scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) horizontal line runs to right and left from pellet-in-ring motif
     3) two curved lines run right and left from pellet-in-ring motif
     4) COM above
     5) FILI below
     6) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) VIR above horse
     2) pellet-in-ring motif below horse
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

467.01

467 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in incuse tablet
     2) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse stands on exergual line
     2) Vl above
     3) horse's left front leg raised
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.
               Modern forgery exist—see 467 - 0lF.

466.01

466 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Gold Quarter Stater    1.2 gms.    9 mm

Earliest record: Poste, 1846

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COM F in tablet
     2) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse rears on back legs
     2) exergual line
     3) VI above horse
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Many found at Wanborough.

465.01

465 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    1.0 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in incuse tablet
     2) solid crescent above and below

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) VIR above horse
     2) eight-spoked wheel below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Most in museums.

461.01

461 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in Tablet
Identifying points:
     1) similar to 460 - 01
     2) pellet-in-ring motif above and below tablet

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) similar to 460 - 01
     2) daisy behind horse
     3) exergual line below horse
     4) VIR below exergual line
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFlCATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Standard weight given.

460.10

460 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in Tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in incuse tablet
     2) plain field

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds spear
     2) VIR below horse
     3) five-pointed star above horse
     4) ring behind horse
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Reverse adapted from a denarius of P. Crepusius.

 

First Coinage of Verica    Silver Units

470.01470.03470.05470.07471.01472.01473.01 new474.01

474.01

474 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    0.5 gms.    11 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motifs around horse
     2) anemone behind horse
     3) outline crescent above horse with lines and pellets rising from it

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse highly stylized
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs around horse
     3) two wavy lines rise above pellet-in-ring motif above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Traditionally described as a North Thames Type LX14 by Allen, but                     now attributed to Verica. The type is related to 369 - 01                     (previously 473 - 01) stylistically, a coin now attibuted to                     Tincomarus. One design element the coins have in common is the                     crescent-with-lines above the horse.
              Likely an earlier type, the coin deserves additional study.

A better-preserved example now shows the obverse legend is TINC.
472.01

472 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    R
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in centre
     2) pellet above and below COMF
     3) outline crescent with two pellet-in-ring motifs above and below COMF
     4) pellet border

REV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) bull stands on exergual line
     2) VIR below exergual line
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

471.01

471 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    0.6-1.0 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in tablet and scroll
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in tablet
     2) solid crescent with pellet and two rings above and below tablet
     3) large circle around entire image
     4) pellet border outside circle

REV: Eagle
Identifying points:
     1) eagle faces with wings spread
     2) head turned left
     3) pellet border
     4) VI RT above eagle

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.

470.07

470 - 07    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell. 1989

OBV: Inscription in scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) as 470 - 03

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 470 - 03, but VIR below boar

CLASSlFlCATlON: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Reverse adapted from a denarius of M. Voteius.

 

470.05

470 - 05    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) as 470 - 03

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) boar stands on exergual line
     2) VI and pellet below exergual line
     3) six-pointed star above boar

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Reverse adapted from a denarius of M. Voteius.

470.03

470 - 03    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) as 470 - 01, but no pellet-in-ring motifs

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) no exergual line
     2) VIRI below boar
     3) six-pointed star above boar

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Reverse adapted from a denarius of M. Voteius.

470.01

470 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Inscription in scroll pattern
Identifying points:
     1) COMF in centre
     2) outline crescent and two pellet-in-ring motifs above and below COMF
     3) pellet border

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) boar stands on exergual line
     2) VIRI below exergual line
     3) six-pointed star above boar

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Reverse adapted from a denarius of M. Voteius.

 

First Coinage of Verica    Silver Minims

475.01 new482.01 new483.01484.01485.01486.01487.01488.01 new was 384.01

488.01 new was 384.01

488 - 01    Verica First Coinage    25-20 B.C.    ER
Silver Minim    0.24 gms.    7 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Box
Identifying points:
     1) C and F separated by pellet-in-ring motif inside box
     2) pellet on either side of box
     3) pellet-in-ring motif above and below box
     4) pellet border

REV: Facing Medusa
Identifying points:
     1) straight hair
     2) legend VERICA

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Coin has not been authenticated via metallurgical analysis but                      appears to be a plausible type.
                This type had initially been attributed to Tincommius (384 -01), with                      an illegible reverse legend, however a better-preserved example                      now shows the legend to be VERICA.

487.01

487 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) four crescents around pellet-in-ring motif
     3) line inside each crescent
     4) three pellets between crescents

REV: Hand holding trident
Identifying points:
     1) V R on sides of hand
     2) EX below hand
     3) crescent above hand

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Coin has not been authenticated via metallurgical analysis but                      appears to be plausible type.

486.01

486 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    7 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1958 (1941 West Harting excavation find)

OBV: Cross and floral pattern
Identifying points:
     1) two lines form cross
     2) three pellets in each angle
     3) pellet border

REV: Trident
Identifying points:
     1) trident in plain field
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: This coin, first shown to Derek Allen in the British Museum during the                      Second World War, was reported in his 1958 PPS article as a find                      during excavations at West Harting, Sussex in 1941. The coin (or an                      identical one) reappeared in New York City in September, 1986.
               Reports of many finds at Wanborough, but cannot be confirmed.
               Trade survey indicates 'VR', but cannot be confirmed.

485.01

485 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    VR
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in plain field
Identifying points:
     1) VIRIC in mirror-image

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) C above boar
     2) O below boar
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               New variety has not been analyzed metallurgically, but type appears                     genuine.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

484.01

484 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    9 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Pellet and ring pattern
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) four groups of three pellets around central pellet-in-ring motif
     3) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) VIR above horse
     2) pellet-in-ring motif below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Mack listed type twice as M120a and 120c to illustrate more of image.
                Reports of many finds at Wanborough, but cannot be confirmed.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

483.01

483 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10-20 A.D.    VR
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Cross
Identifying points:
     1) irregular objects in angles

REV: Irregular object
Identifying points:
     1) possibly an animal, object has irregular outline

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Some in museums.
               Published example poorly preserved, images not clear, but type is                     different from other minims.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

Initially, Evans associated this coin with some silver types of Verica. But it has long been thought possibly an earlier type. Simon Bean has reasonably assigned it to the period just before Commius.
475.01

475 - 01    Verica First Coinage    10 B.C. - 10 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Legend in blank field
Identifying points:
     1) VERICA

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) ring below boar
     2) boar stands on exergual line
     3) uncertain object above boar

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic I

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.
               Previously, this coin was attributed to Eppillus (423 - 01) but a                     better-preserved example now shows the obverse has the legend                     VERICA.

  

 

 

 

<Mobile device – close box>                           Previous Plate    Next Plate