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Plate 20     Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    <info 1>    < 2 >

Page 2

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. The other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified.

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Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name "Venta Belgarum" to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae based on new silver types reported since 1994. These enigmatic coins need careful analysis and reflection. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after the analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and they may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

Continued….

 

Second Coinage of Verica    Gold    <info>

The Coinage of Verica

Verica replaced Eppillus as leader of Atrebates around 10 A.D.
Cunobeline, after his accession to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian leadership, had driven Eppillus and the Atrebatesfrom Kent. Once Eppillus was deposed—he disappeared completely—peace was restored between the tribes.

Initially, Verica must have been accepted by his more powerful neighbour. By the mid 30's however, he evidently lost the support of Cunobeline. Coins began to appear in the northern part of Atrebatic territory carrying the name Epaticcus, who styled himself a son of Tasciovanus. This leader, a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer if not actually a relative of Cunobeline's, soon expanded his influence in Verica's territory. Verica was ultimately deposed by the encroacher and undoubtedly was the Berikos who fled to Rome on the eve of 43 A.D. Verica's appeal for Roman military intervention prompted the Claudian invasion the following year.

Verica struck three successive coinages, distinguished by the types of the staters. The First Coinage staters show a tablet with COMF on the obverse and a mounted warrior with the inscription VIR on the reverse. The Second Coinage staters are almost identical, but add the title REX to the reverse. The third coinage introduces a new design to the obverse, a vine leaf with VI RI on the sides. All three coinages include quarter staters, silver units and silver minims. No bronze coins have been identified and it is likely Verica struck only gold and silver.

500.01500.03501.01

501.01

501 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    R
Gold Quarter Stater    1.3 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription, crescent and star
Identifying points:
     1) VERIC COMF in two lines
     2) solid crescent above inscription
     3) six-pointed star below inscription

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) seven-pointed star above horse
     2) REX below horse
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Typical weight given.
                Some in museums.
                Some found at Wanborough.
                Mack indicated a six-pointed star above the horse, but the published                      example actually has seven.
                Rarity provided via trade survey.

500.03

500 - 03    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    3.0 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989 (Danebury excavations before 1979)

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) as 500 - 01

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 500 - 01
     2) blundered legend 'RIX'

CLASSlFlCATlON: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Struck from ancient forger's dies.
                Example illustrated found at Danebury during excavations.
                Gilt via the mercury gilding process.

500.01

500 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    S
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) COM.F in incuse tablet
     2) plain field

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior brandishes spear
     2) Vl R above horse
     3) REX below horse
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Standard weight given.

 

Second Coinage of Verica    Silver

505.01506.01510.01510.05511.01512.01

512.01

512 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.2 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) similar to 506 - 01
     2) bull lowers head to butt
     3) exergual line below bull
     4) pellet border

REV: Eagle standing left
Identifying points:
     1) eagle spreads wing
     2) eagle stands on branch

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                      genuine, however.

               This is the minim corresponding to 506 - 01.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

511.01

511 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) VIR VAR in two lines inside tablet
     2) pellet border

REV: Pegasus right
Identifying points:
     1) Pegasus rears on hind legs
     2) CO below Pegasus
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Many in museums.
                Type not reported amongst Wanborough finds.

510.05

510 - 05    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) four lines extend from pellet-in-ring motif
     3) crescents with lines in angles

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) boar charging right
     2) R below boar
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Most are in museums.
                Coin has not been authenticated via metallurgical analysis but                      appears to be a plausible type.

510.01

510 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    8 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Uncertain figure
Identifying points:
     1) figure possibly a Celtic warrior on horse right
     2) pellet border

REV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) O below boar
     2) possibly C above boar
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Type not reported amongst Wanborough finds.

506.01

506 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.3 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) bull lowers head to butt
     2) bull stands on exergual line
     3) VERICA inverted above bull
     4) REX below exergual line
     5) pellet border

REV: Figure standing left
Identifying points:
     1) figure hold branch in right hand
     2) figure holds bust on lance in left hand
     3) COM MI F around figure
     4) exergual line below figure
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.

505.01

505 - 01    Verica Second Coinage    20-25 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Inscription in circle
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif in centre
     2) large ring around central pellet-in-ring motif
     3) VERICA COMMI F around large ring
     4) pellet border

REV: Lion right
Identifying points:
     1) solid crescent above lion
     2) REX below lion
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic J

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                Reverse copied from a coin of Augustus.

 

Third Coinage of Verica    Gold   

520.01 520.01 another520.05520.07525.01526.01527.01

527.01

527 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Gold Quarter    Stater 0.7 gms.    9 mm

Earliest record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds sword and small round shield
     2) COM above horse
     3) pellet border

REV: Bust right
Identifying points:
     1) head is laureate
     2) VIRI in front of face

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Most in museums
               Mack noted the obverse was copied from a coin of Tiberius.
               There is some question which is the obverse, Mack indicated the bust                      side. It appears the the rider occupies the convex side which is                      normally the obverse.
               Coin may share obverse die with 526 - 01.

526.01

526 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    0.9 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds sword and small round shield
     2) COM above horse
     3) pellet border

REV: Seated figure right
Identifying points:
     1) figure holds spear
     2) VERICA around figure
     3) exergual line below figure
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Most in museums.
               There is some question which is the obverse, Mack indicated the seated                     figure. It appears the rider occupies the convex side, which is                     normally the obverse.
               Coin may share obverse die with 527 - 01.

525.01

525 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    1.0 gms.    10 mm

Earliest Record: Eavans, 1890

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) VERI below leaf

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds sword and small round shield
     2) horse stands on exergual line
     3) F RX in field, probably intended as 'REX'
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Typical weight given.
               Most in museums.
               Obverse possible adapted from ancient intaglios.

520.07

520 - 07    Verica Third Coinage    20-25 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.4 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) as 520 - 05

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 520 - 05, but retrograde F below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Most in museums.

520.05

520 - 05    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) as 520 - 01, but VE to left of leaf

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 520 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Standard weight given.
               Most in museums.

520.01 another

520 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    S
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) Vl to left of leaf
     2) Rl to right of leaf

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds shield and spear
     2) C O F in field: C behind rider, O above horse's head and F below horse
     3) horse stands on incomplete 'boxes'
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Standard weight given.
                Some in museums.
                Vine leaf motif possible adapted from ancient intaglios.

520.01

520 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    S
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) Vl to left of leaf
     2) Rl to right of leaf

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior holds shield and spear
     2) C O F in field: C behind rider, O above horse's head and F below horse
     3) horse stands on incomplete 'boxes'
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Standard weight given.
                Some in museums.
                Vine leaf motif possible adapted from ancient intaglios.

 

 

 

 

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