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Plate 21     Atrebates, Regni & Belgae    <info 1>    < 2 >

Page 2

Commius, at first a supporter of Caesar, became disillusioned with the Romans and went over to Vercingetorix. After the collapse of Celtic resistance at Alesia, he fled to join the British part of his tribe. Later, the Atrebates struck coins with his name, and possibly the acceptance of Commius in Britain was the reason they fell out of favour. The change in trading rights altered the relative fortunes of the two tribes forever. By the end of the millennium, the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni had economic influence throughout southern Britain and had begun to rival the Atrebates.

The Atrebates seized the opportunity of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum to mount a military incursion into Kent under their leader, Eppillus. Eppillus struck a victory stater commemorating the initial success of the expedition. The incursion was cut short, however, by the elevation of Cunobeline to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian throne. He drove the Atrebates out of Kent and Eppillus promptly disappeared. He is replaced on the coins by Verica, a self-styled 'son of Commius'.

Sometime before the Claudian invasion, Verica was in turn overthrown. He probably was the historical Celtic leader 'Bericus' who appeared in Rome seeking aid from Claudius. Verica was replaced on the coins by Epaticcus, who styled himself a 'son of Tasciovanus'. Whether the family-tie was real is not so important, the result was the Atrebatic leadership was now held by a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer. Shortly before the Claudian invasion, Epaticcus was replaced by Caratacus, the famous leader of the British resistance against the Roman invaders. The Atrebatic coinage came to an end during the forties, as Caratacus fled westwards to lead the resistance amongst the tribes in Wales. One Atrebatic leader known to history, Cogidubnus, has not yet been identified on the coinage. It seems he was not elevated to leadership until the coinage had come to an end.

The oppidum of Calleva, Silchester today, was the site of an Atrebatic mint, and the name Calleva appears on coins of Eppillus. The other leaders may have had mints elsewhere, but none have been identified.

Page 1

Coinage of the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae

The Atrebates, Regni and Belgae occupied the territory that is today Berkshire, Sussex and Hampshire. Whether three distinct political groups struck coins cannot be proven today, nor can separate territories be demonstrated. The Regni are virtually unknown to history until the Roman period, and the tribal area of the Belgae is a matter of controversy. Though Belgic immigration is mentioned by Caesar, he does not specifically say where they settled, and we only have the Roman name "Venta Belgarum" to suggest a location. The Atrebates, also mentioned by Caesar, had tribal members on both sides of the Channel.

Traditionally, the three tribes have been treated numismatically as one. Based on the current state of research, there is no reason to change this approach. Attempts have been made to identify a separate coinage for the Belgae based on new silver types reported since 1994. These enigmatic coins need careful analysis and reflection. Certainly, after the Gallic War, only one coinage circulated in the territory. It may someday come to pass that coinages for the Belgae and Regni can be identified, but only after the analysis of the new types has been completed. Most of these are listed under "New Material". For the remainder of this discussion the three tribes will be referred to simply as the "Atrebates" for the sake of brevity.

Initially, the three tribes constituted one of the most advanced groups in Britain. They had trading contacts with Belgic Gaul in the late second and early first centuries B.C., and were one of the earliest to strike coins. The earliest stater, the INSULAR TYPE struck before the Gallic War, is derived from imported Gallo-Belgic C. The next coinage, the WESTERHAM TYPE, is now felt to be inspired by the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage of the same name, struck during the Gallic War. After the war, the tribal position changed dramatically, and they may have fallen out of favour with the Romans. It is possible the cross-Channel trading rights were given to the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni instead. A loss of trading rights may have been the result of Commius' activities during the War.

Continued….

 

Third Coinage of Verica    Silver Units    <info>

The Coinage of Verica

Verica replaced Eppillus as leader of Atrebates around 10 A.D.
Cunobeline, after his accession to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian leadership, had driven Eppillus and the Atrebatesfrom Kent. Once Eppillus was deposed—he disappeared completely—peace was restored between the tribes.

Initially, Verica must have been accepted by his more powerful neighbour. By the mid 30's however, he evidently lost the support of Cunobeline. Coins began to appear in the northern part of Atrebatic territory carrying the name Epaticcus, who styled himself a son of Tasciovanus. This leader, a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian sympathizer if not actually a relative of Cunobeline's, soon expanded his influence in Verica's territory. Verica was ultimately deposed by the encroacher and undoubtedly was the Berikos who fled to Rome on the eve of 43 A.D. Verica's appeal for Roman military intervention prompted the Claudian invasion the following year.

Verica struck three successive coinages, distinguished by the types of the staters. The First Coinage staters show a tablet with COMF on the obverse and a mounted warrior with the inscription VIR on the reverse. The Second Coinage staters are almost identical, but add the title REX to the reverse. The third coinage introduces a new design to the obverse, a vine leaf with VI RI on the sides. All three coinages include quarter staters, silver units and silver minims. No bronze coins have been identified and it is likely Verica struck only gold and silver.

530.01531.01532.01533.01534.01 not illustrated

534 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964 (Godalming, Surrey find, ca. 1936)

OBV: Head right
Identifying points:
1) head "Augustan" according to Mack
2) VERICA in field

REV: Eagle left
Identifying points:
1) COMMI F in field

CLASSIFICATlON: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Photograph, metrological data not available.
                Coin reportedly seen at Baldwin's in 1936.
                Reportedly a ca.1936 Goldalming, Surrey find.
                Not reported in Surrey Archaeological Collections 1931-1941.
                The rarity provided via trade survey in 1980's of "VR" is obviously                       incorrect – only one coin was ever recorded, and cannot be traced                       today.

533.01

533 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.1 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Male figure standing left
Identifying points:
     1) figure, naked, holds left arm above head
     2) figure holds lituus in right hand
     3) COM to left of figure
     4) Ml F to right of figure
     5) pellet border

REV: Bust right
Identifying points:
     1) bust of Tiberius, laureate
     2) VERI behind bust
     3) CA in front of face
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                There is some question which is the obverse, Mack indicated the bust                      side. It appears the bust occupies the concave side which is                      normally the reverse.
                Reverse (bust side) copied from a coin of Tiberius.

532.01

532 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Bust right
Identifying points:
     1) bust draped and diademed
     2) VIRI in front of face
     3) pellet border

REV: Seated figure left
Identifying points:
     1) figure wears helmet
     2) figure holds branch in left hand, spear in right
     3) pellet on either side of branch

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Reverse copied from a coin of Tiberius.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

531.01

531 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.1 gms.    11 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Two cornucopiae
Identifying points:
     1) sceptre between cornucopiae
     2) vase below sceptre
     3) COMMI F around cornucopiae

REV: Seated figure right
Identifying points:
     1) VERI in front of figur
     2) CA behind figure
     3) figure holds spear
     4) oval shield behind figure
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                There is some question which is the obverse, Mack indicated the                       seated figure side. It appears the cornucopia side occupies the                       convex side which is normally the obverse.
                Mack noted obverse (cornucopia side) was copied from a denarius of                      Mark Anthony.

530.01

530 - 01    Verica Third Coinage     25-35 A.D.    C
Silver Unit    1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior carries oval shield
     2) COMMI F below horse
     3) pellet border

REV: Celtic warrior on horse right
Identifying points:
     1) warrior brandishes spear
     2) VERI above horse
     3) CA below horse
     4) pellet border

CLASSlFICATlON: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Many found at Wanborough.
                There is some question which is the obverse,
                Mack indicated the VERICA side. It appears the COMMI F occupies                      the convex side which is normally the obverse.
                Reverse copied from a Roman Republican denarius of Q. Pilipus.

 

Third Coinage of Verica    Silver Minims

550.01551.01552.01553.01554.01555.01556.01557.01

557.01

557 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Sphinx right
Identifying points:
     1) sphinx crouches
     2) C below sphinx
     3) F in front of sphinx
     4) exergual line below sphinx
     5) pellet border

REV: Animal, curled up right
Identifying points:
     1) VERI inverted above animal
     2) animal appears to be a hound sleeping

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Metrological data not available.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical
                    analysis, the type appears genuine, however.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.


556.01

556 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Floral pattern
Identifying points:
     1) two leaved, or flowered plant
     2) C F above plant
     3) pellet border

REV: Hippocamp right
Identifying points:
     1) VER, up-side-down, above hippocamp
     2) CA below hippocamp, no crossbar to A
     3) I in VERICA does not appear
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

555.01

555 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    S
Silver Minim    0.2 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell,1989

OBV: Two cornucopiae
Identifying points:
     1) similar to 531 - 01
     2) standard between two cornucopiae
     3) pellet border

REV: Eagle flying left
Identifying points:
     1) eagle's head turned back to right
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, possible commoner than indicated.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Obverse copied from a coin of Mark Anthony.
               This is the minim corresponding to 531 - 01.

554.01

554 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    7 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell

OBV: Cornucopia
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets at open end of cornucopia
     2) COM to left of cornucopia
     3) probably MI F to right of cornucopia, but partially off-flan on only          published example
     4) pellet border

REV: Celticized lion right
Identifying points:
     1) lion has reversed-S tail
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.

553.01

553 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Temple
Identifying points:
     1) temple with peaked roof
     2) C and F, upside-down on sides
     3) indistinct figure in temple appears to hold spear
     4) pellet border

REV: Bull right
Identifying points:
     1) bull butting right
     2) VER upside-down above bull
     3) REX below bull
     4) pellet border
     5) exergual line below bull

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Later version of 552 - 01.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Obverse adapted from denarius of Augustus with temple of Jupiter                     Tonans, B.M .C. 4415. Reverse adapted from a denarius of Augustus.
               The suggestion a Celtic temple is depicted is unlikely.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

552.01

552 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    9 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Altar
Identifying points:
     1) altar made up of lines and pellets, top is curved
     2) C to left of altar
     3) F to right of altar
     4) pellet border

REV: Facing bull's head
Identifying points:
     1) V, up-side down above head
     2) ERICA below head

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                      genuine, however.
                Reports of many finds from Wanborough, but cannot be confirmed.                 Rarity provided via trade survey.

551.01

551 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.2 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Torc
Identifying points:
     1) C.F inside torc
     2) torc has pellet terminals

REV: Bust right
Identifying points:
     1) VERI in front of face

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough, may be commoner than indicated.
                There is some question which side is the obverse, Mack indicated the                      bust side. This side is concave, however, and would normally be the                      reverse.
                Reverse (bust side) copied from a denarius of Tiberius.

550.01

550 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Vine leaf
Identifying points:
     1) C to left of leaf
     2) F to right of leaf
     3) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse rears on hind legs
     2) VERT above horse
     3) CA below horse
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                      genuine, however.
               This is the minim corresponding to 520 - 01 and 525 - 01.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

 

Third Coinage of Verica    Silver Minims

558.01559.01560.01561.01562.01 not illustrated563.01564.01

564.01

564 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-43 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    ca. 7-8 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1964

OBV: Inscription in tablet
Identifying points:
     1) VIR in concave-sided box
     2) daisy above and below box
     3) pellet border

REV: Boar's head right
Identifying points:
     1) boar's head in plain field

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Coin in Evans, 1864 has a somewhat uncertain image on the reverse,                      and Evans could not identify the object. However, Mack appears                      correct in equating it with this type.

562 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) as 560 - 01
     2) B in centre

REV: Bird right
Identifying points:
     1) as 561 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
                Traditionally attributed to Amminius, but now reassigned to Verica.                 The type is the successor to 560 - 01 and 561 -01.
                Metrological data not available.
                Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                       genuine, however.
                May share reverse die with 561 - 01.
                Reverse possibly adapted from an intaglio, a pre-Flavian plasma                       intaglio from Fishbourne is similar.
                Not illustrated.

563.01

563 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-43 A.D.    ER
Silver Minim    ca. 7-8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Urn
Identifying points:
     1) urn has base and two handles
     2) REX above
     3) pellet border

REV: Eagle flying right
Identifying points:
     1) eagle wears 'necktie'
     2) VERICA COMMI F around eagle
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Possibly more common than indicated.

561.01

561 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.2 gms.    9 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) as 560 - 01
     2) A in centre

REV: Bird right
Identifying points:
     1) bird stands on branch
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Reverse possibly adapted from an intaglio, a pre-Flavian plasma                      intaglio from Fishbourne is similar.
               Attributed to Amminius when published in 1953.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.


560.01

560 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.3 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Geometric pattern
Identifying points:
     1) two squares form eight-pointed star
     2) Vl in centre, or possibly TA
     3) pellet in arms of V
     4) pellet border

REV: Pegasus right
Identifying points:
     1) Pegasus prancing
     2) exergual line below
     3) V above Pegasus, REX, almost illegible, below
     4) pellet border

CLASSIFICATlON: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

559.01

559 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    6 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Inscription in plain field
Identifying points:
     1) VERI in centre
     2) pellet border

REV: Urn
Identifying points:
     1) urn has two handles
     2) pellet-in-oval motif for lid
     3) COM to left of urn
     4) Ml F to right of urn
     5) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

558.01

558 - 01    Verica Third Coinage    25-35 A.D.    R
Silver Minim    0.2 gms.    8 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Bust right
Identifying points:
     1) bust laureate
     2) pellet-in-ring motif in front of bust
     3) pellet border

REV: Celtized dog right
Identifying points:
     1) dog very stylized
     2) exergual line below
     3) pellet-in-ring motif above dog

CLASSIFICATION: Atrebatic K

NOTES: Some found at Wanborough.
               Not yet authenticated via metallurgical analysis, the type appears                     genuine, however.
               Bust undoubtedly derived from a Roman denarius.
               Rarity provided via trade survey.

 

 

 

 

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