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Plate 25     Iceni    <info 1>  < 2 >

Page 2

The Coinage of the Iceni

After the war an extensive Icenian silver coinage was produced, which probably continued up to the time of the Boudiccan Rebellion. Silver units were produced to a standard weight of 1.25g. for nearly 100 years, a remarkable economic and technological achievement. There was a bewildering succession of types, subtypes and minor die varieties. These varieties have been systematically analyzed by John Talbot, and the arrangement is now reasonably certain. It appears that in any given period, three separate kinds of silver were being struck. Talbot suggests that the main Icenian mint either had two branch mints, or alternatively three workshops within a single mint. It is also possible that the different kinds of silver were either produced for different purposes, or perhaps at different times within a given period. Generally, the absolute chronology needs additional work. The chronology used here makes use of the work reported in John Talbot and Ian Leins's 2010 paper in The British Numismatic Journal.

The FRECKENHAM TYPE disappeared by 20 A.D. and the uninscribed silver coins were superseded by the dynastic. Very few inscribed gold coins are known. It is possible the gold coinage was minimal and the Iceni used silver coins augmented with Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian gold after 20 A.D. The Icenian dynastic period is largely one of a prolific silver coinage, beginning with the addition of an inscriptions to the CRESCENT TYPE and the introduction of the EMBLEM TYPE.

Most of the major types are listed here, but some of the minor issues need to be added. The dating of the various issues is controversial and that offered is somewhat arbitrary, based on die studies, typological sequences and analyses of coin hoards deposited around the rebellion of 61 A.D.

Page 1

The Coinage of the Iceni

The Iceni occupied the area that is today Norfolk, Suffolk and parts of Cambridgeshire. Until the time of the Gallic War, the tribe seems economically isolated. Large Flan, Defaced Die and Abstract Design Type staters are not commonly found in Icenian territory, and presumably few were imported. Locally-made coins, the NORFOLK WOLF TYPE staters and BURY TYPE silver, were first produced late in the Gallic War. The earliest Icenian gold coinage comprises gold staters with the abstracted head of Apollo on the obverse and a disjointed wolf on the reverse. The heavy weight indicates the series began some time around the end of the war. After the war, the coins become quite debased and bronze cores of plated staters occur with some frequency. Later, a small coinage of SNETTISHAM TYPE coins were struck in gold and silver.

Apparently, extensive trading contacts developed during the war with the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni. A small number of Gallic War Type staters are found and uninscribed staters of the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni also appear. After the war, the coins of Addedomaros and Tasciovanus circulated. It is possible the Iceni relied on these imports instead of striking their own gold in volume.

About 20 B.C., the gold content of the Icenian coinage was restored with the introduction of the FRECKENHAM TYPE. Staters and quarters were struck lighter in weight to conform with the coinages of the other British tribes. The staters had a flower pattern or cross of pellets on the obverse and a Celticized horse on the reverse. Three major types occurred, described either as EARLIER and LATER, based on style and the progressive damage to one particular die linked with several others. Since all three types occurred in the Freckenham Hoard, it is likely they were contemporary.

Continued….

 

Iceni    Early Uninscribed Silver Coins

Freckenham Era Types    Icenian C

655.01657.01657.03657.03 another659.01659.01 another659.02659.03

659.03

659 - 03    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 659 - 01, but pellet on boar's shoulder

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 659 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: Most are in museums.

659.02

659 - 02    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER

Silver/Bronze Plated Unit    ca. 0.9 gm    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 659 - 01

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 659 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: An ancient forgery of 659 - 01, comprised of a bronze core covered with                      silver.
               The field ornaments are the same, and the style similar, but the coin is                      not an exact duplicate.

659.01 another

659 - 01    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    S
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets above and in front of boar
     2) pellet below boar's tail
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines
     4) no pellet on boar's shoulder
     5) single pellet below boar
     6) ring-and-pellet motif behind boar

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets and four-spoked wheel above horse
     2) five pellets and a cotter-pin shaped line below horse
     3) horse has eye comprised of a large pellet

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: This type is potentially common, because records of extant specimens                      are not accurate.
               Many are in museums.

659.01

659 - 01    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    S
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets above and in front of boar
     2) pellet below boar's tail
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines
     4) no pellet on boar's shoulder
     5) single pellet below boar
     6) ring-and-pellet motif behind boar

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets and four-spoked wheel above horse
     2) five pellets and a cotter-pin shaped line below horse
     3) horse has eye comprised of a large pellet

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: This type is potentially common, because records of extant specimens                      are not accurate.
               Many are in museums.

657.03 another

657 - 03    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    VR
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 657 - 01, but pellet on boar's shoulder

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 657 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: Many are in museums.

657.03

657 - 03    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    VR
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 657 - 01, but pellet on boar's shoulder

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) as 657 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: Many are in museums.

657.01

657 - 01    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    VR
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets in front of boar, possibly in a ring
     2) four pellets below boar
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines
     4) no pellet on boar's shoulder
     5) boar stands on a double exergual line with
              a row of pellets between the two lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets and large crescent above horse
     2) six-pointed star below horse
     3) horse has 'necklace' and 'belt'
     4) horse's tail made up of a single line with shorter lines coming off at an               angle
     5) horse has eye comprised of a large pellet

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: This type is potentially common, because records of extant specimens                      are not accurate.
               Many are in museums.

655.01

655 - 01    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    VR
Silver Unit ca.    1.0 gm.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) ring of pellets above boar
     2) three pellets below boar
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines
     4) pellet on boar's shoulder

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) ring of pellets above horse
     2) three pellets above horse
     3) horse stands on exergual line with pellets below
     4) horse's tail made up of a single line with shorter lines coming off at an                angle

CLASSIFICATlON: Icenian C

NOTES: This type is potentially common, because records of extant specimens                      are not accurate.

 

Iceni    Early Uninscribed Silver Coins

Freckenham Era Types    Icenian C, E and F

661.01665.01665.03665.05675.01679.01681.01683.01

683.01

683 - 01    Crescent Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Fraction    ca. 0.6 gm.    11 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964

OBV: Wreath and crescent motif
Identifying points:
     1) wreath from abstracted head of Apollo transformed into rows of pellets               with thin lines attached
     2) two outline crescents, back to back in centre
     3) two pellets near crescents

REV: Celticized horse right Identifying points:
     1) pellet in front of horse
     2) horse's mane comprised of pellets with thin line attached

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian F

681.01

681 - 01    Crescent Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Fraction    ca. 0.6 gm.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Crossed wreath and crescent motif
Identifying points:
     1) wreath from abstracted head of Apollo transformed into a crossed pattern
     2) two solid crescents, back to back in centre
     3) three pellets and a solid crescent near first set of crescents
     4) pellets in angles formed by crossed wreaths

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets surround horse

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian F

679.01

679 - 01    Crescent Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: Wreath and crescent motif
Identifying points:
     1) wreath from abstracted head of Apollo transformed into rows of pellets
     2) two outline crescents, back to back in centre
     3) two pellets near crescents

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian F

NOTES: A variant type, possibly a local issue.
               Dating less certain than for other coins in this series.
               John Talbot assigns this to "Mint Group B"

675.01

675 - 01    Crescent Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    R
Silver Unit    ca. 1.2 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Crossed wreath and crescent motif
Identifying points:
     1) wreath from abstracted head of Apollo transformed into a crossed pattern
     2) two outline crescents, back to back in centre
     3) two rings near crescents
     4) pellets in angles formed by crossed wreaths

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) six-spoked wheel above horse
     2) pellets on horse's shoulder

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian F

NOTES: A variant type, possibly a local issue.
                Dating less certain than for other coins in this series.
               Most are in museums.
               John Talbot assigns this to "Mint Group C"

665.05

665 - 05    Celtic Head Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    14 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) Head about the same size as the flan
     2) oval shape for eye
     3) outline crescent for ear
     4) hair comprised of parallel lines, ending with pellets

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) ring of pellets above horse
     2) pellet below horse's tail
     3) probable ring-and-pellet motif below horse

CLASSlFlCATlON: Icenian E

665.03

665 - 03    Celtic Head Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    16 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964

OBV: Celticized head right
Identifying points:
     1) Head about the same size as the flan
     2) "coffee bean" for eye
     3) outline crescent for ear
     4) elaborately coiled hair

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) eight-spoked wheel with axle above horse
     2) ring-and-pellet motif above horse
     3) curved lines run tangentially upwards from wheel

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian E

665.01

665 - 01    Celtic Head Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 0.9 gm.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celticized head left
Identifying points:
     1) Head much larger than flan
     2) "coffee bean" for eye
     3) representational ear
     4) elaborately coiled hair

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) ring-and-pellet motif below horse
     3) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian E

NOTES: This coin is the earliest variety of the Celtic Head Type,
                    Commander Mack felt it was a link to the earlier Boar Type.
               Other varieties have a less representational ear.

661.01

661 - 01    Boar Type    15 B.C. - 20 A.D.    ER
Silver Fraction    ca. 0.5 gm.    ca. 11 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) two or three pellets below boar
     2) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse has bridle
     2) ring-and-pellet motif above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian C

NOTES: Flan may be elongated.

 

Iceni    Early Inscribed Silver Coins    CANI DVRO    Icenian D

663.01663.01 another

663.01 another

663 - 01    Boar Type    CANI DVRO    15 B.C. - 30 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.25 gms.    12-15 mm

Earliest Record: Stukeley, 1776

OBV: Celticized Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) Ring of pellets around boar
     2) Boar's tail S-shaped
     3) two pellets near tail
     4) "A" below boar with pellet for cross-bar, and small ring above

REV: Celticized Horse right
Identifying points:
     1) CANI above horse
     2) DVRO below horse
     3) horse has necklace and belt
     4) pellet below tail and above letter V
     5) exergual line made up of a row of pellets

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian D

NOTES: Earliest inscribed Icenian issue.
                Not necessarily a dynastic issue, possibly a local issue.
                Dating less certain than other coins in this series.
                Previously the inscription was read as "CAN DVRO" but newer finds                      now show the reading to be "CANI DVRO".
                John Talbot also cautions this may be a local issue.
                Daphne Nash-Briggs suggests "CANI DVRO" could either be a                      personal name "Cani" with a place name "Dvro" or alternatively be                      a place name "Canidvro".

663.01

663 - 01    Boar Type    CANI DVRO    15 B.C. - 30 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    1.25 gms.    12-15 mm

Earliest Record: Stukeley, 1776

OBV: Celticized Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) Ring of pellets around boar
     2) Boar's tail S-shaped
     3) two pellets near tail
     4) "A" below boar with pellet for cross-bar, and small ring above

REV: Celticized Horse right
Identifying points:
     1) CANI above horse
     2) DVRO below horse
     3) horse has necklace and belt
     4) pellet below tail and above letter V
     5) exergual line made up of a row of pellets

CLASSIFICATION: Icenian D

NOTES: Earliest inscribed Icenian issue.
                Not necessarily a dynastic issue, possibly a local issue.
                Dating less certain than other coins in this series.
                Previously the inscription was read as "CAN DVRO" but newer finds                      now show the reading to be "CANI DVRO".
                John Talbot also cautions this may be a local issue.
                Daphne Nash-Briggs suggests "CANI DVRO" could either be a                      personal name "Cani" with a place name "Dvro" or alternatively be                      a place name "Canidvro".

 

 

 

 

 

 

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