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Plate 35     Corieltauvi Gold    <info 1>  < 2 >

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The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Later Uninscribed Issues     <info 1>  < 2 >

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South Ferriby Type Staters – Numbering Scheme

        Sout Ferriby Table

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South Ferriby Type Staters

In the past, several different varieties of coins were included under the South Ferriby Type. All had a highly stylized horse on the reverse, with variations in the ornaments in the field. The series is one of bewildering complexity and to make it more understandable, the term "South Ferriby Type" is now limited to only one variety, number 811. The other varieties have been renamed, basically according to the field ornaments.

The ornaments above the horse include variations of an anchor-like object; a rectangle with dots, which is now called a domino; and a lozenge-shaped box with pellets, which is now called a kite. Below the horse appear a six- or eight-pointed star, a wavy-armed star, a sunflower, or a spiral. The upper portions of the horse's front legs are either made up of a single line (the normal type); or two lines, either both straight, or one straight and one curved.

To add to the complexity, the obverse dies were often used until they were almost completely obliterated, yielding almost-uniface varieties. Coins made of bronze cores wrapped in gold foil are known for many types and the dies from which they were struck are competently engraved.

Consequently, when all these variations are combined, a tremendous number of types may be postulated. Many of these are not known to exist today; but many do, and others will probably appear in the future. Consequently, the following catalogue section has been constructed to accommodate the potential varieties. The following table gives the catalogue numbers and descriptions, along with an indication of those types known to exist today.

Continued....

 

Gold Staters    Corieltauvian E and F

Transitional Type817.01Transitional Type Three819.03Trefoil Type821.01

821.01

821 - 01    Trefoil Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Allen , 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Elaborate trefoil
Identifying points:
     1) six pellets encircling a single pellet, all within a clrcle
     2) three large leaves extend from circle
     3) field of coin has raised striations as if die was smoothed off with a file

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) "anchor" above horse transformed into two spirals encompassing pellets
     2) boot-like object in centre of horse
     3) six-pointed star below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian F

NOTES: Considered to be a pattern by Roth (1909).
                Modern forgery exists—see 821 - 0lF.

819.03

819 - 03    Transitional Type Three    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) obverse die almost obliterated

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) "anchor" above horse transformed into two spirals encompassing pellets
     2) boot-like object in centre of horse
     3) six-pointed star below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian E

NOTES: Obverse die used until almost completely obliterated, some examples                      show almost a plain obverse.

817.01

817 - 1    Wheel Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo
Identifying points:
     1) spike with one crescent, end of spike may be bent to form two-pronged          hook
     2) wreath: leaves inwards

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) front forelegs of horse are made up of two straight lines
     2) four-spoked wheel below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian E

 

 

Gold Staters    Kite and Domino Types    Corieltauvian G and H

Kite Type825.01825.08825.09Domino Type829.01829.03829.04

829.04

829 - 04    Domino Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) obverse die completely obliterated

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) multi-armed spiral below horse
     2) domino-like box above horse
     3) four pellets in box

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian H

NOTES: Bronze core of a plated stater.

829.03

829 - 03    Domino Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Type: Hawkes, 1947

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) partially obliterated obverse die

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) multi-armed spiral below horse
     2) domino-like above horse
     3) four pellets in box

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian H

829.01

829 - 01    Domino Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) spike with one crescent
     2) pellet in angle formed by spike and crescent
     3) wreath: leaves inwards

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) multi-armed spiral below horse
     2) domino-like box above horse
     3) four pellets in box

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian H

NOTES: Modern forgery exists—see 829 - 01F.

825.09

825 - 09    Kite Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) spike with one crescent
     2) diagonal linear depression to right of curls
     3) wreath: leaves upwards, highly splayed

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) kite-shaped box with open ends above horse
     2) four pellets in box
     3) box has curved sides

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian G

825.08

825 - 08     Kite Type     ca. 45-10 B.C.     ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater     19 mm

Earliest Record: Hawkes and Hull, 1947

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) obverse die almost obliterated

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) kite-shaped box above horse
     2) three pellets in box

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian G

NOTES: Bronze core of a plated stater.

825.01

825 - 01    Kite Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) spike with one crescent
     2) obverse die often partially obliterated
     3) wreath: leaves inwards, slightly splayed

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) three-armed spiral below horse
     2) three pellets at end of each spiral arm
     3) kite-shaped box above horse
     4) four pellets in box

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian G

 

 

Gold Staters    Anomalous Types    Corieltauvian D

835.01837.01

837.03

837 - 03    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) almost obliterated obverse die

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) seven-pointed star below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Variant type, with seven-pointed star, believed to be a die-cutting                      error.
               Most are in museums.

835.01

835 - 01    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.2-5.7 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963, (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Abstracted head of Apollo right
Identifying points:
     1) spike with one crescent, end of spike is bent to form two-pronged hook
     2) pellet in angle of hook
     3) wreath: leaves inwards

REV: Disjointed horse left
Identifying points:
     1) four-pointed star below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Variant type, with four-pointed star, this is believed to be a die-cutting                      error.
               Most are in museums.

 

 

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