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Plate 37     Corieltauvi    <info 1>  < 2 >

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The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Uninscribed Silver Coinages    <info>

Uninscribed Silver Coins of the Corieltauvi

The first silver coins carry an obverse type copied directly from the Roman Republican denarii of C. f. Hosidius Geta. The Roman prototypes are dated to about 60 B.C., and thus the introduction of silver coinage in Corieltauvian territory coincides roughly with the gold staters of 55 B.C. The HOSIDIUS TYPE is the silver counterpart of the North East Coast staters.

The introduction of silver coins was probably the result of the economic stresses of the Gallic War and the increased contact between Rome and Britain. Roman coins, primarily silver denarii, would have circulated in increasing numbers during this period. The Celtic tribes in closest contact with Rome would have been induced to strike their own versions as a result. The Corieltauvi, rather than being isolated, are seen to be participating in the mainstream of the socioeconomic changes sweeping Britain in this period.

About 45 B.C., the HOSIDIUS TYPE is replaced by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, coincidentally with the change in the gold coinage. Although there is considerable similarity between the two types, the SOUTH FERRIBY exhibits more stylization of the boar and horse. This type continues until the inception of the dynastic issues, about 10 B.C.

 

Hosidius Type Silver Coins    Corieltauvian B

855.03855.05855.07855.08857.01857.03857.05

857.05

857 - 05    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    15 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 857 - 01, but ring-in-pellet motif in ring of pellets above boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 857 -01, but ring-in-pellet motif in ring of pellets above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: Most are in museums.

857.03

857 - 03    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 857 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 875 - 01, but no ring-and-pellet motif below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: Most are in museums.

857.01

857 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.4 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) large ring of pellets above boar
     2) ring-and-pellet motifs above, below and in front of boar
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg made up of two lines

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) large ring of pellets above horse
     2) ring-and-pellet motifs above, below and in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: A later variety, because reversed "S" object has been replaced with a                      ring-and-pellet motif.

855.08

855 - 08    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    14-15 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 855 - 03, but no reversed "S" below boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) similar to 855 - 03
     2) pellet-in-ring inside ring of pellets above horse
     3) pellet-in-ring motif in front of horse
     4) ring, or pellet-in-ring motif below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: A later variety than 855 - 03, because the reversed "S" has been deleted.

855.07

855 - 07    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) as 855 - 05

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 855 - 05, but no pellet-in-ring motif in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

855.05

855 - 05    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.0 gm.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1610 (Philemon Holland edition)

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) spear piercing boar is missing
     2) ring and pellet motifs surround boar
     3) vestiges of reversed "S" object below boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) elaborate anemone above horse
     2) ring and pellet motifs in front of and behind horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

855.03

855 - 03    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    1.2-1.4 gms.    14-15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) spear pierces boar's back
     2) elaborate anemone above boar
     3) boars's tail has counter-clockwise curl
     4) reversed "S" object below boar
     5) elaborate spiral above boar's head

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) ring below horse
     2) large ring of pellets with large central pellet above horse
     3) ring and an elongated ring above horse's head

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: This is the earliest extant Corieltauvian type because it conforms                       closest to the denarii of C. f. Hosidius Geta.
                The reversed "S" object below the boar is the vestige of the dog on the                      Roman prototype.
                The reverse die was used until severely damaged, a large die-break is                      often seen in front of the horse's nose. Reverse adapted from 80 - 01.

 

Hosidius Type Silver Coins    Corieltauvian B

860.01862.01864.01866.01867.01

867.01

867 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1-1.2 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Boar left
Identifying points:
     1) ring-and-pellet motif behind boar
     2) large pellet on boar's shoulder
     3) four elaborate curves above boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) large ring of pellets enclosing a ring-and-pellet motif in front of horse
     2) same object above horse but large ring comprised of a greater number of          pellets
     3) two ring-and-pellet motifs below horse with a row of pellets in between          running vertically

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

864.01

864 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.2-1.4 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) ring-and-double-pellet motif behind boar
     2) two elaborate curves above boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) ring-and-double-pellet motif above horse
     2) elaborate curve above ring-and-double-pellet motif

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

866.01

866 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Fractional Unit    ca. 0.3 gms.    0.9 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet below boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellets above and below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: Possibly a fractional denomination of 864 - 01.

862.01

862 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Fractional Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) four-spoked wheel above boar
     2) ring-and-pellet motif behind boar

OBV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) four-spoked wheel above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

NOTES: This coin is a fractional denomination of 860 - 01.

860.01

860 - 01    Hosidius Type    55-45 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.3 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) boar stands on exergual line made up of two rows of pellets
     2) wheel in front of and behind boar

OBV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) eight-spoked wheel above horse
     2) Ring in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian B

 

 

South Ferriby Type Silver Coins    Corieltauvian D

875.01875.02877.01877.03877.03 another877.05877.07

877.07

877 - 07    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    R
Silver Unit ca.    1.2 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Almost plain
Identifying points:
     1) vestiges of boar may be visible

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) large ring of pellets above horse
     3) one or more pellets below horse's tail
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) no object below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Pellets below horse's tail may be a privy mark denoting date or issue.
                Obverse die used until almost completely obliterated.

877.05

877 - 05    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    16 mm

Earliest Record:Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Almost plain
Identifying points:
     1) vestiges of boar may be visible

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) large ring with large central pellet above horse
     3) no pellets below horse's tail
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "necklace"
     6) horse has a mane
     7) no object below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Obverse die used until almost completely obliterated.

877.03 another

877 - 03    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    VR
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Almost plain
Identifying points:
     1) vestiges of boar may be visible

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) ring of pellets with large central pellet above horse
     3) two pellets below horse's tail
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "necklace" and "belt"
     6) no object below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Pellets below horse's tail may be a privy mark denoting date or issue.
                Obverse die used until almost completely obliterated.

877.03

877 - 03    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    VR
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Almost plain
Identifying points:
     1) vestiges of boar may be visible

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) ring of pellets with large central pellet above horse
     3) two pellets below horse's tail
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "necklace" and "belt"
     6) no object below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Pellets below horse's tail may be a privy mark denoting date or issue.
                Obverse die used until almost completely obliterated.

877.01

877 - 01    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.4 gm.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Stylized boar right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet below boar's tail
     2) large ring of pellets above boar
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines
     4) no object below boar

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) ring of pellets above horse
     3) pellet below horse's tail
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "necklace" and "belt"
     6) no object below horse

CLASSIFIC ATION: Corieltauvian D

NOTES: Pellet below horse's tail may be a privy mark denoting date or issue.

875.02

875 - 02    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.4 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Stylized boar right
Identifying points:
     1) ring-and-pellet motifs below and behind boar
     2) large ring of pellets with large central pellet above boar
     3) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hostdius type
     2) ring of pellets above horse
     3) ring-and-pellet motifs below and in front of horse
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "necklace"

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

875.01

875 - 01    South Ferriby Type    ca. 45-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    17 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Stylized boar right
Identifying points:
     1) ring-and-pellet motif above, below and in front of boar
     2) upper portion of boar's front leg comprised of two lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse more stylized than on Hosidius type
     2) ring of pellets above horse
     3) ring-and-pellet motif below horse
     4) upper portion of horse's front legs comprised of two lines
     5) horse has "belt"

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian D

 

 

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