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Plate 40     Corieltauvi    <info 1>  < 2 >

Page 2

The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage    <info>

The Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage

The earliest inscribed Corieltauvian coins, all extremely rare, were struck to the weight standard prevailing in Britain prior to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. The weight of subsequent types dropped immediately to the lower standard of the Interregnum, thus the dynastic coinage probably began sometime around 10 B.C.

During the sixty years of dynastic coinage, a complex series of names or combinations of names appears on the coins. The moneyers continue to use their complex privy marks to denote different issues. Whilst the earliest inscribed coins are identical to the South Ferriby Type, they carry the inscription VEP.

The next staters are those inscribed AVN AST, and all are extremely rare. The standard weight of these can only be estimated, but one example examined weighs 5.55 gms. Subsequent dynastic issues are all lighter, with a standard weight of 5.4 gms. The last issue of staters, those inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAVNVS, are all underweight probably reflecting the emergency conditions of the Roman invasion. The very last Corieltauvian coins, those inscribed VOLISIOS CARTIVEL, are known only in silver.

The coinages between AVN AST and VOLISIOS DUMNOVELLAVNVS are difficult to date or even to place in proper order. The weights are constant, giving no clues, but there is a change in style over time which enables us to construct a sequence. Most of the inscriptions occur on a single issue of coins, indicating short-lived productions. However, the coins inscribed VEP CORF occur in at least three distinct issues with many subtypes. The VEP CORF coinage contains an easily identifiable sequence of privy marks beneath the horse's tail: stars, ring and pellet motifs and triple pellets. Other coins are inscribed ESVP ASV, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO and VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS.

Whilst the meaning of the inscriptions is somewhat controversial, it is generally assumed they record names or groups of names. The appearance of multiple inscriptions on individual coins has been taken as a sign the Corieltauvi had shared leadership, instead of single rulers. However, the inscriptions could include titles or names of moneyers or perhaps even place-names.

The Corieltauvian coinage would have come to an end when the Romans suppressed the tribal coinage around the middle of the fifties A.D. Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

In the following catalogue, the inscriptions have been placed in order largely by studying changes in style. The rarity of the various types has been taken as an indication of their duration. Consequently, the dating of many issues is arbitrary. Hopefully, future metallurgical and die-cutting studies will provide a more accurate chronological framework.

 

Gold Coins Inscribed VEP    Corieltauvian I

905.01905.02

905.02

905 - 02    VEP    10-5 B.C.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    3.8-4.3 gms.   20 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) some trace of Apollo head may appear on some coins

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) Same horse as on South Ferriby Type
     2) horse's head made up of pellet with triangle for nose
     3) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian I

NOTES: Possibly this type belongs with the coins inscribed VEP CORF, the                      dating of this issue is uncertain than other Corieltauvian coins.
                Typical weight given.

905.01

905 - 01    VEP    10-5 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    19 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) some trace of Apollo-Wreath may appear on some coins

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) same horse as on South Ferriby Type
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian I

NOTES: The only reported example has been cut by farm machinery—the                      coin's original weight cannot be determined.

 

 

AVN AST or AVN COST    Corieltauvian J    <info>

Coins Inscribed AVN AST or AVN COST

Gold staters, plated staters, silver units and half units are known. The heaviest inscribed gold staters occur in this series, dating them earliest. A pellet in the centre of the horse on the stater sets this type apart from all other inscribed types, but it is reminiscent of the boot-like object in the Trefoil Type, number 821 - 01.

gold coins910.01910.02910.02 another

910-02 another

910 - 02    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    3.4-5.5 gms.    19 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 910 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 910 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

NOTES: Possibly struck from official dies.
                Obverse die may be obliterated.
                Typical weight given.

910.02

910 - 02    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    3.4-5.5 gms.    19 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 910 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 910 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

NOTES: Possibly struck from official dies.
                Obverse die may be obliterated.
                Typical weight given.

910.01

910 - 01    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    5.55 gms.    19 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) Wreath from head of Apollo now fills field of coin
     2) crossbar with crescents bisects wreath
     3) ornate ring and pellet motifs at ends of crossbar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) horse has pellet in ring for a head
     2) AVN above horse
     3) uncertain legend, probably OST below horse
     4) letter "A" has no crossbars
     5) question-mark shaped object below tail
     6) pellet in centre of body

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

NOTES: Estimated standard weight given.
                Existing coins weigh as much as 5.55 gms.

 

Silver Coins Inscribed AVN AST or AVN COST    Corieltauvian J

914.01914.03918.01918.03

918.03

918 - 03    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11 mm

Earliest Record:

OBV: Plain or Almost Plain
Identifying points:
     1) may be slight traces of wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 914 - 03

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian I

918.01

918 - 01    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Apollo Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) weak traces of Apollo-Wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) AVN above horse, no crossbar on letter "A"

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

NOTES: "AST" may appear below horse, or "OST"
               Many are in museums.

914.03

914 - 03    AVN AST    5-1 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    12 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963 (South Ferriby Hoard before 1908)

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) no traces of Apollo-Wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) AVN above horse
     2) pellet above horse
     3) floral pattern below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

914.01

914 - 01    AVN AST    5 -1 B.C.    VR
Silver Unit ca.    1.1 gm.    12 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) some traces of Apollo-Wreath may appear on some coins

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) AVN above horse, no crossbar on letter "A"
     2) pellet above horse
     3) question-mark shaped object below tail

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian J

NOTES: "AST" may appear below horse, or "OST"

 

 

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