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Plate 41     Corieltauvi    <info 1>  < 2 >

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The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage    <info>

The Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage

The earliest inscribed Corieltauvian coins, all extremely rare, were struck to the weight standard prevailing in Britain prior to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. The weight of subsequent types dropped immediately to the lower standard of the Interregnum, thus the dynastic coinage probably began sometime around 10 B.C.

During the sixty years of dynastic coinage, a complex series of names or combinations of names appears on the coins. The moneyers continue to use their complex privy marks to denote different issues. Whilst the earliest inscribed coins are identical to the South Ferriby Type, they carry the inscription VEP.

The next staters are those inscribed AVN AST, and all are extremely rare. The standard weight of these can only be estimated, but one example examined weighs 5.55 gms. Subsequent dynastic issues are all lighter, with a standard weight of 5.4 gms. The last issue of staters, those inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAVNVS, are all underweight probably reflecting the emergency conditions of the Roman invasion. The very last Corieltauvian coins, those inscribed VOLISIOS CARTIVEL, are known only in silver.

The coinages between AVN AST and VOLISIOS DUMNOVELLAVNVS are difficult to date or even to place in proper order. The weights are constant, giving no clues, but there is a change in style over time which enables us to construct a sequence. Most of the inscriptions occur on a single issue of coins, indicating short-lived productions. However, the coins inscribed VEP CORF occur in at least three distinct issues with many subtypes. The VEP CORF coinage contains an easily identifiable sequence of privy marks beneath the horse's tail: stars, ring and pellet motifs and triple pellets. Other coins are inscribed ESVP ASV, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO and VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS.

Whilst the meaning of the inscriptions is somewhat controversial, it is generally assumed they record names or groups of names. The appearance of multiple inscriptions on individual coins has been taken as a sign the Corieltauvi had shared leadership, instead of single rulers. However, the inscriptions could include titles or names of moneyers or perhaps even place-names.

The Corieltauvian coinage would have come to an end when the Romans suppressed the tribal coinage around the middle of the fifties A.D. Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

In the following catalogue, the inscriptions have been placed in order largely by studying changes in style. The rarity of the various types has been taken as an indication of their duration. Consequently, the dating of many issues is arbitrary. Hopefully, future metallurgical and die-cutting studies will provide a more accurate chronological framework.

 

ESVP ASV or ESVP RASV    Corieltauvian K    <info>

Coins Inscribed ESVP ASV or ESVP RASV

Gold staters, plated staters and silver units are known. The crosses in the Apollo-Wreath and the star below the horse's tail on the stater links this type to the First Coinage of VEP CORF. The catalogue number 928 - 01 is reserved for a silver half unit, should one be proven.

In 2006 and 2007, Geoffrey Cottam published articles on the Leicestershire hoards. In these he discussed the problems of reading the legends on these coins. Hopefully, further study and subsequent publication of these hoards will result in more definitive answers.

920.01920.03924.01

924 - 01    ESVP ASV    1-5 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) Apollo-Wreath fills field of coin
     2) pellet on either side of wreath
     3) crosses in wreath

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) ESVP above horse
     2) ASV below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvi

NOTES: Crosses and pellets in the wreath link this type to the First Coinage of                     VEP CORF.
               Not illustrated.

920.03

920 - 03    ESVP ASV    1-5 A.D.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    3.9-4.9 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 920 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 920 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian K

NOTES: Possibly struck from official dies.


920.01

920 - 01    ESVP ASV    1-5 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    19 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 910 - 01
     2) two crosses in wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) star below tail
     2) ESVP above horse, first letter usually uncertain
     3) ASV below horse
     4) pellet in centre of body

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian K

NOTES: Star below horse's tail and crosses in the wreath link ESVP ASV and                      VEP CORF First Coinage chronologically.
                Some are in museums.
                Estimated standard weight given, because too few coins exist to                      determine standard with certainty.

 

 

VEP CORF First Coinage    Corieltauvian L    <info>

Coins Inscribed VEP CORF

Three distinct coinages are known: the First Coinage, with a star below the horse's tail; the Second Coinage, with a pellet-in-ring motif below the tail; and the Third Coinage, with three pellets below the tail.

The chronological relationship of ESVP ASV, the three coinages of VEP CORF and DVMNOC TIGIR SENO is established by a typological analysis. The crosses in the Apollo-wreath staters and the star below the horse's tail links the First Coinage to its predecessor ESVP ASV. The silver units of ESVP ASV and VEP CORF First Coinage both have pellets and crosses in the wreaths. The three pellets on the Third Coinage reappear under the horse's neck on the succeeding type, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO.

The large number of varieties, and the extensive use of privy marks by VEP CORF argues for a relatively long coinage, compared to other Corieltauvian inscribed issues. Previously, the estimated ten-year span had been divided amongst the three coinages arbitrarily. In the current listing, the ten-year span is given for all three types (visitors are reminded that the dates given throughout the catalogue are no better than plus or minus 5 year estimates).

The spelling of VEP CORF varies widely and somewhat depends on the available space in the field. Possibly, the CORF should be read COR F, indicating a 'son of COR' construction, though the lack of a stop between the R and F argues against this. One silver variety, with finer die-cutting overall, gives a reading VEPOC COMES or VEPOC OMES.

Gold staters, silver units and half units are known for all three coinages. Plated staters are known for the Third Coinage, though off-centre striking and the poor state of preservation of most cores often make it difficult to determine the object below the tail. Plated staters probably exist undetected for the other two coinages. Catalogue numbers 930 - 02 and 940 - 02 are reserved for the cores corresponding to 930 - 01 and 940 - 01, should they be discovered.

The obverse dies for the silver units were generally used until completely obliterated. No attempt has been made to list the obliterated die states under separate catalogue numbers because insufficient information exists.

Although VEP CORF coins are extremely rare by individual varieties, an example of a silver unit is usually not too difficult to obtain. The three varieties of staters rate a 'VR', taken together, but most are held in museums.

As with other Corieltauvian coins, the chronology of these issues and the exact reading of the legends may be revised upon the publication of Geoff Cottam's exhaustive study of the Leicestershire Hoards and the dies-links for the series.

Gold Coins930.01Silver Coins934.01938.01

938.01

938 - 01    VEP CORF First Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11-12 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) star below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian L

934.01

934 - 01    VEP CORF First Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gm    14 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) Apollo-Wreath fills the field
     2) pellet on either side of wreath
     3) crosses in wreath

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) star below horse's tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian L

NOTES: Crosses and pellets in the wreath link this type with the coinage of                      ESVP ASV chronologically.

930.01

930 - 01    VEP CORF First Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1864

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) Apollo-wreath fills field
     2) two crosses in wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) VEP, retrograde, above horse
     2) CORF below horse
     3) crude eight-pointed star below horse's tail

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian L

NOTES: The crosses in the wreath and the star below the horse's tail link this                      type to the coinage of ESVP ASV.
                Standard weight given.
                Most are in museums.

 

VEP CORF Second Coinage    Corieltauvian M

Gold Coins940.01Silver coins950.01955.01Vep Corf Silver UnitsVEP CORF Silver Half Units

VEP CORF Silver Units Not Illustrated

943 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CORF below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

945 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP, retrograde above horse
     3) CORF below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

VEP CORF Silver Half Units Not Illustrated

947 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11-12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

952 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11-12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

958 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11-12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

955.01

955 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Coinage: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEPOC above horse
     3) COMES or OMES in front of horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

NOTES: Obverse dies used until obliterated

 

950.01

950 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

940.01

940 - 01    VEP CORF Second Coinage    5-15 A.D. ER
Silver Stater    5.4 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1863

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) large question-mark objects around wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CORF below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian M

NOTES: Many are in museums.
                Modern forgeries exist—see 940 - 0lF.
                Standard weight given.

 

 

 

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