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Plate 42     Corieltauvi    <info 1>  < 2 >

Page 2

The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage    <info>

The Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage

The earliest inscribed Corieltauvian coins, all extremely rare, were struck to the weight standard prevailing in Britain prior to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. The weight of subsequent types dropped immediately to the lower standard of the Interregnum, thus the dynastic coinage probably began sometime around 10 B.C.

During the sixty years of dynastic coinage, a complex series of names or combinations of names appears on the coins. The moneyers continue to use their complex privy marks to denote different issues. Whilst the earliest inscribed coins are identical to the South Ferriby Type, they carry the inscription VEP.

The next staters are those inscribed AVN AST, and all are extremely rare. The standard weight of these can only be estimated, but one example examined weighs 5.55 gms. Subsequent dynastic issues are all lighter, with a standard weight of 5.4 gms. The last issue of staters, those inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAVNVS, are all underweight probably reflecting the emergency conditions of the Roman invasion. The very last Corieltauvian coins, those inscribed VOLISIOS CARTIVEL, are known only in silver.

The coinages between AVN AST and VOLISIOS DUMNOVELLAVNVS are difficult to date or even to place in proper order. The weights are constant, giving no clues, but there is a change in style over time which enables us to construct a sequence. Most of the inscriptions occur on a single issue of coins, indicating short-lived productions. However, the coins inscribed VEP CORF occur in at least three distinct issues with many subtypes. The VEP CORF coinage contains an easily identifiable sequence of privy marks beneath the horse's tail: stars, ring and pellet motifs and triple pellets. Other coins are inscribed ESVP ASV, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO and VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS.

Whilst the meaning of the inscriptions is somewhat controversial, it is generally assumed they record names or groups of names. The appearance of multiple inscriptions on individual coins has been taken as a sign the Corieltauvi had shared leadership, instead of single rulers. However, the inscriptions could include titles or names of moneyers or perhaps even place-names.

The Corieltauvian coinage would have come to an end when the Romans suppressed the tribal coinage around the middle of the fifties A.D. Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

In the following catalogue, the inscriptions have been placed in order largely by studying changes in style. The rarity of the various types has been taken as an indication of their duration. Consequently, the dating of many issues is arbitrary. Hopefully, future metallurgical and die-cutting studies will provide a more accurate chronological framework.

 

VEP CORF Third Coinage    Corieltauvian N  <info>

Coins Inscribed VEP CORF

Three distinct coinages are known: the First Coinage, with a star below the horse's tail; the Second Coinage, with a pellet-in-ring motif below the tail; and the Third Coinage, with three pellets below the tail.

The chronological relationship of ESVP ASV, the three coinages of VEP CORF and DVMNOC TIGIR SENO is established by a typological analysis. The crosses in the Apollo-wreath staters and the star below the horse's tail links the First Coinage to its predecessor ESVP ASV. The silver units of ESVP ASV and VEP CORF First Coinage both have pellets and crosses in the wreaths. The three pellets on the Third Coinage reappear under the horse's neck on the succeeding type, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO.

The large number of varieties, and the extensive use of privy marks by VEP CORF argues for a relatively long coinage, compared to other Corieltauvian inscribed issues. Previously, the estimated ten-year span had been divided amongst the three coinages arbitrarily. In the current listing, the ten-year span is given for all three types (visitors are reminded that the dates given throughout the catalogue are no better than plus or minus 5 year estimates).

The spelling of VEP CORF varies widely and somewhat depends on the available space in the field. Possibly, the CORF should be read COR F, indicating a 'son of COR' construction, though the lack of a stop between the R and F argues against this. One silver variety, with finer die-cutting overall, gives a reading VEPOC COMES or VEPOC OMES.

Gold staters, silver units and half units are known for all three coinages. Plated staters are known for the Third Coinage, though off-centre striking and the poor state of preservation of most cores often make it difficult to determine the object below the tail. Plated staters probably exist undetected for the other two coinages. Catalogue numbers 930 - 02 and 940 - 02 are reserved for the cores corresponding to 930 - 01 and 940 - 01, should they be discovered.

The obverse dies for the silver units were generally used until completely obliterated. No attempt has been made to list the obliterated die states under separate catalogue numbers because insufficient information exists.

Although VEP CORF coins are extremely rare by individual varieties, an example of a silver unit is usually not too difficult to obtain. The three varieties of staters rate a 'VR', taken together, but most are held in museums.

As with other Corieltauvian coins, the chronology of these issues and the exact reading of the legends may be revised upon the publication of Geoff Cottam's exhaustive study of the Leicestershire Hoards and the dies-links for the series.

Gold coins960.01960.02

960.02

960 - 02    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    20 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 960 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 960 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: No reliable weight available.
                Ancient forgery of 960 - 01.

960.01

960 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853 (Almondbury Hoard, 1829)

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) large question-mark objects around wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) VEP above horse
     3) CORF below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Many in museums.
                Three pellets below tail reappear under horse's neck on next coinage,                      DVMNOC TIGIR SENO.
                Standard Weight given.

 

VEP CORF Third Coinage    Corieltauvian N

Silver Coins963.01965.01965.01 another967.01969.01

969.01

969 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) VEP RO above horse, letter "R" is reversed

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Obverse die used until completely obliterated.
                Normal type has three pellets below tail, varieties may exist with one                      or two pellets.

967.01

967 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    11-12 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) one pellet below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Obverse die used until completely obliterated.
                Normal type has one pellet, varieties may exist with two or three                      pellets.

965.01

965 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Obverse dies used until obliterated.

963 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATI()N: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Not illustrated.

965.01

965 - 01    VEP CORF Third Coinage    5-15 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.1 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Van Arsdell, 1989

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below tail
     2) VEP above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian N

NOTES: Obverse dies used until obliterated.

 

 

DVMNOC TIGIR SENO    Corieltauvian O    <info>

Coins Inscribed DVMNOC TIGIR SENO

Both gold staters and silver units are known, but all are extremely rare. The full inscription, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO, was determined from two silver units. The three pellets under the horse's neck on the stater link this coinage to the preceding VEP CORF Third Coinage and the following coinage of VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS.

Gold Coins972.01Silver Coins974.01

978.01

974 - 01    DVMNOC TIGIR SENO    15-20 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 0.8 gms.    14 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) two lines run horizontally across wreath
     3) DVMNOC inside lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below horse's neck
     2) TIGIR above horse
     3) SENO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian O

NOTES: No accurate weight available because most existing coins are chipped                      or broken.
                Obverse die apparently used for some time before horizontal lines and                      DVMNOC were engraved because wreath is almost obliterated, but                      inscription is clearly visible.
                Some are in museums.

972.01

972 - 01    DVMNOC TIGIR SENO    15-20 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) Wreath fills field
     2) large question mark objects around wreath
     3) two lines run horizontally across wreath
     4) DV and MN between lines to left and right, respectively of wreath

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) Three pellets below horse's neck
     2) TIGIR above horse
     3) SENO below horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian O

NOTES: Modern forgeries exist—see 972 - 0lF.
                Standard weight given.

 

 

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