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Plate 43     Corieltauvi    <info 1>  < 2 >

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The South Ferriby Type and its variations display the most complex series of privy marks found on any Ancient British coinage. Cleverly-made plated forgeries are known for most types, and these may have prompted the moneyers to use the privy marks. The forgeries were produced by hammering gold foil around a bronze core prior to striking, and some of the forgeries appear to be struck from official dies. The similarity between genuine and false coins, however, may only indicate the extent of technological knowledge amongst the tribal population—the forgers may have been as expert as the mint-workers in die-cutting. The proficiency of the forgers may help explain the need for complex privy marks on the genuine coins. Alternatively, future metallurgical studies may prove the marks signal changes in the gold/silver/copper relationship instead and thus serve as assay marks.

A long series of inscribed coins followed the uninscribed, and the coinage ended with the Roman suppression of tribal coinage during the fifties A.D.

Evidence of a Celtic mint has been discovered at Old Sleaford. However it is not known if it was the only Corieltauvian mint, nor if it was the mint producing the coins listed in this catalogue.

Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

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The Coinage of the Corieltauvi

The Corieltauvi occupied Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, parts of Humberside and perhaps parts of Derbyshire and South Yorkshire. The correct name of the tribe, obtained from a tile-grafitto found in 1965, is CORIELTAUVI. In the past, the tribe had been known as the "Coritani", but the new spelling has been widely accepted. The Corieltauvi, for many years, were thought to be a largely peripheral tribe, untouched by the changes transforming southern Britain. This view has been questioned by archaeological studies made after 1960. They are now considered to have been an advanced group—early to adopt the potter's wheel, for example.

The coinage was at one time thought to have a Brigantian origin because several large hoards were found in the territory of that tribe. However, more comprehensive analyses of findspots identify a Corieltauvian source, beyond doubt. Recent studies indicate the coinage was one of the earliest struck in Britain, appearing shortly after the Atrebatic/Regnan Westerham stater. The Corieltauvi struck coins continuously until the Claudian invasion. They have a complex sistem of privy marks that may have been used for die control, weight specification or perhaps identification of metallurgical content.

The coinage begins around 55 B.C. with the NORTH EAST COAST TYPE, derived stylistically from the Abstract Design Type staters of the Ambiani. These coins, struck to a standard weight of 6.25 grammes, appeared in two versions. The horse on the reverse faces either right or left, and previously it was felt the change signaled a difference in the weight of the two types. However, more recent weight studies show the difference is smaller than thought. In the current catalogue, the two are listed as a single issue. The NORTH EAST COAST TYPE was replaced about 45 B.C. by the SOUTH FERRIBY TYPE, signaling a significant weight reduction to 5.7 grammes.

Continued....

Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage    <info>

The Corieltauvian Dynastic Coinage

The earliest inscribed Corieltauvian coins, all extremely rare, were struck to the weight standard prevailing in Britain prior to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum. The weight of subsequent types dropped immediately to the lower standard of the Interregnum, thus the dynastic coinage probably began sometime around 10 B.C.

During the sixty years of dynastic coinage, a complex series of names or combinations of names appears on the coins. The moneyers continue to use their complex privy marks to denote different issues. Whilst the earliest inscribed coins are identical to the South Ferriby Type, they carry the inscription VEP.

The next staters are those inscribed AVN AST, and all are extremely rare. The standard weight of these can only be estimated, but one example examined weighs 5.55 gms. Subsequent dynastic issues are all lighter, with a standard weight of 5.4 gms. The last issue of staters, those inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAVNVS, are all underweight probably reflecting the emergency conditions of the Roman invasion. The very last Corieltauvian coins, those inscribed VOLISIOS CARTIVEL, are known only in silver.

The coinages between AVN AST and VOLISIOS DUMNOVELLAVNVS are difficult to date or even to place in proper order. The weights are constant, giving no clues, but there is a change in style over time which enables us to construct a sequence. Most of the inscriptions occur on a single issue of coins, indicating short-lived productions. However, the coins inscribed VEP CORF occur in at least three distinct issues with many subtypes. The VEP CORF coinage contains an easily identifiable sequence of privy marks beneath the horse's tail: stars, ring and pellet motifs and triple pellets. Other coins are inscribed ESVP ASV, DVMNOC TIGIR SENO and VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS.

Whilst the meaning of the inscriptions is somewhat controversial, it is generally assumed they record names or groups of names. The appearance of multiple inscriptions on individual coins has been taken as a sign the Corieltauvi had shared leadership, instead of single rulers. However, the inscriptions could include titles or names of moneyers or perhaps even place-names.

The Corieltauvian coinage would have come to an end when the Romans suppressed the tribal coinage around the middle of the fifties A.D. Since the 1990's, a systematic study of Corieltauvian die-links has been performed by Geoffrey Cottam, who has published some of his findings. He has suggested that some of the coins may be local issues, and others may need later dating. It is possible that the chronology given here may need revision when Cottam's full analysis is published.

In the following catalogue, the inscriptions have been placed in order largely by studying changes in style. The rarity of the various types has been taken as an indication of their duration. Consequently, the dating of many issues is arbitrary. Hopefully, future metallurgical and die-cutting studies will provide a more accurate chronological framework.

 

VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS    Corieltauvian P    <info>

Coins Inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS

Gold staters, plated staters, silver units and half units are known. The three pellets below the horse's neck are repeated from the coinage inscribed DVMNOC TIGIR SENO. The VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAUNUS coinage that follows continues the triple-pellet motif below the neck, but the staters are of greatly reduced weight.

Gold coins978.01978.02Silver coins980.01984.01

980 - 01    Volsios Dvmnocoveros    20-35 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 1.3 gms.    16 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1975

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) three horizontal lines across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below horse s neck
     2) DVMNOCOVEROS around horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian P

NOTES: Not illustrated.

984.01

984 - 01    Volisios Dvmnocoveros    20-35 A.D.    ER
Silver Half Unit    ca. 0.8 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) three horizontal lines across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets below horse's neck
     2) DVMNOCO around horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian P

NOTES: Uncertain if the complete "DVMNOCOVEROS" appears around the                      horse.
               Many are in museums.

978.02

978 - 02    Volisios Dvmnocoveros    20-35 A.D.    ER
Gold/Bronze Plated Stater    ca. 3.0 gms.    18 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 978 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 978 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian P

NOTES: Ancient forgery of 978 - 0l.

978.01

978 - 01    Volisios Dvmnocoveros    20-35 A.D.    R
Gold Stater    5.40 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Camden, 1789 (Gough edition)

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) three horizontal lines run across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below horse's neck
     2) DVM NOCO VER OS around horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian P

NOTES: Some are in museums.
                Standard weight given.

 

VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAUNUS  Corieltauvian Q  <info>

Coins Inscribed VOLISIOS DVMNOVELLAVNOS

Gold staters, plated staters and silver units are all known. The type continues the style of VOLISIOS DVMNOCOVEROS but the stater's weight is drastically reduced. The coinage was probably produced during the time of the Roman Invasion.

Gold coins988.01988.02Silver coins992.02

992.01

992 - 01    Volisios Dvmnovellavnos    35-45 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    13 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) three lines across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets below horse's neck
     2) DVMNOVE around horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian Q

NOTES: Uncertain if the complete "DVNMOVELLAVNOS" appears around the                      horse.
               Most are in museums.

988.02

988 - 02    Volisios Dvmnovellavnos    35-45 A.D.    ER
Gold/BronzePlated Stater    3.9-4.8 gms.    20 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1963

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) as 988 - 01

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) as 988 - 01

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian Q

NOTES: Ancient forgery of 988 - 01.

988.01

988 - 01    Volisios Dvmnovellavnos    35-45 A.D.    ER
Gold Stater    19 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Corieltauvian Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fills field
     2) three horizontal lines across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) three pellets below horse's neck
     2) DVMNOVELLAVNOS around horse

CLASSIFICATIONATION: Corieltauvian Q

NOTES: Typical weight uncertain, thought to be around 5.0 gms.
                Some are in museums.

 

VOLISIOS CARTIVEL    Corieltauvian R    <info>

Coins Inscribed VOLISIOS CARTIVEL

A core of a plated stater has been reported with the inscription CARTIVEL, and another with a blundered legend DANINLIR (?). Catalogue number 993 - 01 is reserved for a gold stater of CARTIVEL, and 993 -02 for a plated variety.

Silver Coins994.01

994.01

994 - 01    VOLISIOS CARTIVEL    45-55 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    ca. 0.5 gms.    15 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1944 (Honley Hoard, 1897)

OBV: Enlarged Apollo-Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) wreath fill the field
     2) three horizontal lines across wreath
     3) VO LI between top lines
     4) SI OS between bottom lines

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellets below horse's neck
     2) CARTIVEL around horse

CLASSIFICATION: Corieltauvian R

NOTES: The type was once believed to be the coinage of Queen Cartimandua,                     but this is now thought unlikely.
                Some are in museums.

 

 

 

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