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Plate 6     Cantian Struck Coinage      <info>

The First Struck Coinages in Kent

At the close of the Gallic War, about 50 B.C., imports of gold coins from Gaul would have nearly ceased. The need for coins prompted the Kentish tribes to strike their own. These first pieces had no inscriptions, but within thirty years, dynastic types appeared.

The uninscribed coins have been arranged in two successive issues. The type sequence starts with the ORNAMENTED TYPE staters, which carry on the reverse a horse in an elaborately-ornamented field. These, and the following types have plain obverses. The ORNAMENTED staters are quickly replaced hy the WEALD TYPE, a variety that suffers a decline in die-cutting workmanship over time.

The first inscribed variety, the SOUTH THAMES BANDED TYPE, has a wavy pattern in place of the plain obverse. The legends on the staters are almost off the flan on the existing coins, but enough is seen on one to suggest the letters 'IVII'. The succeeding inscribed coins continue the bands on the obverse.
Possibly, several tribes were simultaneously striking the different types. Although this would fit more closely with Caesar's comment that four 'kings' inhabited Kent, a simultaneous-production hypothesis is less likely. The coins appear to form a stylistic progression, hence a chronological order. Alternatively, the distribution of modern findspots does not offer enough support to suggest the different types were used in different parts of Kent.

Gold quarter staters are known for the two types of uninscribed staters. The first are a British version of the Gaulish GEOMETRIC TYPE, called the KENTISH GEOMETRIC TYPE. The design is soon changed to the TROPHY TYPE, which has a Celtic adaptation of the trophy motif seen on some of Caesar's denarii. Uninscribed quarters appear to have the same banded pattern as the 'IVII' SOUTH THAMES BANDED staters.

 

Cantian Uninscribed Gold Coinages    Cantian F and G

Cantian F Header142.01143.01 newCantian G Header144.01145.01146.01

Since 1989, findspots have been identified over a much wider area than previously known. Sills has reasonably suggested the type should now be assigned to the Atrebates, Regni & Belgae.

147.01

147 - 01    Late Trophy Type    45-40 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm    1.3-1.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain, perhaps banded
Identifying points:
     1) Slight evidence for banding as seen on Third Struck Coinage types.

REV: Stylized Roman trophy
Identifying points:
     1) Trophy highly stylized
     2) Trophy made up of lines and pellets
     3) Rings at 2 and 11 o'clock
     4) Boxes at 3 and 9 o'clock as on 145-1.

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian G

NOTES: Many in museums
                Reverse design adapted from denarius of Caesar, BMC (Spain) 86 or 89.
                Traditionally described as a British type; possibly, but unlikely a                      Gaulish import.
                Chronologically, this type may precede or be contemporary with the                      Middle Trophy Type.
                Typical weight given.

146.01

146 - 01    Middle Trophy Type    45-40 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    10 mm    1.3-1.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Flower-like ornament in plain field
Identifying points:
     1) field not ornamented
     2) flower has four petals

REV: Stylized Roman trophy
Identifying points:
     1) trophy highly stylized
     2) rings at 5 and 7 o'clock replaced by simple pellets
     3) boxes at 3 and 9 o'clock replaced by rows of pellets

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian G

NOTES: Traditionally described as Gaulish type. but more likely a part of the                     Kentish series on the basis of style.
               Reverse design adapted from denarius of Caesar, BMC 3961.
               Most in museums.
               Typical weight given.

145.01

145 - 01    Early Trophy Type    45-40 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    13 mm    1.3-1.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1980

OBV: plain
Identifying points:
     1) no evidence of banding at this time

REV: stylized Roman trophy
Identifying points:
     1) trophy still recognizable
     2) two rings with cross-hatching at 5 and 7 o'clock engraved with good          workmanship
     3) boxes with cross-hatching at 3 and 9 o'clock engraved with good          workmanship

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian G

NOTES: Reverse design adapted from denarius of Caesar, BMC. 3961.
                Traditionally described as a British type; possibly, but unlikely a                      Gaulish import.
                Most in museums.
                Typical weight given.

144.01

144 - 01    Early Weald Type    45 40 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    16 mm    5.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: plain
Identifying points:
     1) no evidence of banding at this time

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) box with cross-hatching below horse done in neat workmanship
     2) pellet below tail
     3) pellet-in-ring motif in front of horse
     4) S-shape with pellets in arms above horse
     5) horse's right foreleg made up of a single line

CLASSlFlCATlON: Cantian G

NOTES: Some in museums
               Typical weight given.

142.01

142 - 01    Ornamented Type    50-45 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    15 mm    5.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) no evidence of banding at this time

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) rings and lines in abstract pattern below horse
     2) horse's right front foreleg made Up of two lines
     3) pellet-and-ellipse motif with 'wings' above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian F

NOTES: Weight of 5.3 grammes is probably too low for period, but inadequate                 number of coins exists to determine correct standard weight.

 

Cantian Uninscribed Gold Coinages    Cantian H

Cantian H Header150.01151.01

151.01

151 - 01    Late Weald Type    40-35 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) No evidence of banding at this time.

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring on horse's shoulder
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs above horse
     3) 'V' made up of one corded arm and one of short, parallel strokes
     4) box with cross-hatching below horse, engraved with less careful          workmanship as 144-1
     5) horse's right foreleg made up of single line

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian H

NOTES: Most are in museums.

150.01

150 - 01    Late Weald Type    40-35 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    15 mm

Earliest record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain
Identifying points:
     1) No evidence of banding at this time.

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) box with cross-hatching below horse, engraved with less careful          workmanship as 144- 1 .
     2) pellet-in-ring motif on horse's shoulder
     3) three pellet-in-ring motifs above horse
     4) pellet-in-ring in front of horse
     5) horse's right foreleg made up of a single line

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian H

NOTES: Some in museums
               Modern forgery exists see 150-1F.

 

Cantian Uninscribed Coinages    Kentish Uncertain Types     <info>

Arbitrarily Assigned Coins

The following types, for the most part known from only a handful of examples, are traditionally assigned to the Cantii. There is little reason for doing so, other than they have been found in Kent. The types are of unknown date and may be earlier imports from Gaul.

153.01154.01154.03154.05154.07154.09154.11154.13

154 - 13    KENTISH UNCERTAIN    ca. 30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Minim    10 mm

Earliest Mention: Mack, 1964

OBV: Pellet-in-Ring Motifs
Identifying points:
     1) four pellet-in-ring motifs surrounded by a ring of pellets

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse surrounded by ring of pellets

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Not illustrated.

154 - 11    Kentish Uncertain    ca.30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    11 mm

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964

OBV: Pellet-and-Ring Motif
Identifying points:
     1) Larger pellet-in-ring motif in center
     2) seven rings surround central ring

REV: Uncertain
Identifying points:
     1) too poorly preserved to identify

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Not illustrated.

154 - 09    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 30 50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    11 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: Head right
Identifying points:
     1) too poorly preserved to identify

REV: Uncertain animal left
Identifying points:
     1) pellets in field around animal

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Possibly an earlier import from Gaul.
               Not illustrated.

154 - 07    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    ca. 15 mm

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Uncertain animal right
Identifying points:
     1) curved line above animal

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Current whereabouts of coin uncertain, recorded in Evans, plate G14,                      in 1864.
               Not illustrated.

154 - 05    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: Boar left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif below boar

REV: Lion right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motifs above lion

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Not illustrated.

154.03

154 - 03    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    12 mm    2.1 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Uncertain animal right
Identifying points:
     1) exergual line made up of pellets

REV: Uncertain animal right
Identifying points:
     1) rings and pellets in field around animal

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Obverse possibly adapted from the Kentish Geometric Type, 143 - 1.

153 - 01    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 50-30 B.C.    ER
Silver Minim    11 mm    0.4 gms.

Earliest Mention: Mack, 1964

OBV: Horseman right
Identifying points:
     1) horseman holds spear or carnyx

REV: Seated man
Identifying points:
     1) man wearing belt
     2) man hold spear or staff to left

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Not illustrated.

154.01

154 - 01    Kentish Uncertain    ca. 30-50 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    18 mm    1.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Wolf left
Identifying points:
     1) tree? behind wolf
     2) rings in field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rings in field above horse

CLASSIFICATION: None

NOTES: Possibly earlier import from Gaul

 

 

 

 

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