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Plate 7     Cantian Inscribed Coinage    <info>

Kentish Dynastic Coinages

The first inscribed coins carry an illegible inscription, mostly off the flan on existing pieces. The letters 'IVII' partially appear on one stater, but the reading is uncertain. Hopefully, future finds will enable the full inscription to be read.

The next series of inscribed coins are those of the Kentish Dubnovellaunus, probably a different ruler from the one in Essex. Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent struck coins from about 30 B.C. up to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum, about 10 B.C. At this point, he was replaced by a short-lived ruler, Vosenos, who was in turn replaced by Eppillus of the Atrebates/Regni. Eppillus, sensing a loss of Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian influence, intervened in Kent only to be later driven out by Cunobeline. Eppillus issued special coins for use in Kent; subsequently, Cunobeline's coinage circulated. Between the death of Cunobeline and the Claudian invasion, the brief issues of Amminius appeared.

All Kentish dynastic coinage is extremely rare, with only a few examples of each type known today. The issues must have been small, and would be relatively unimportant except they identify the names of Kentish rulers. For the most part, the economic influences of the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni, and for a short time the Artebates/Regni were the significant factors in Kent.

 

Uncertain Ruler    Cantian I    "IVII"

157.01158.01

158.01

158 - 01     South Thames Banded Type    35-30 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: Plain, with bands
Identifying points:
     1) Three raised bands extend across field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) large ring above horse
     2) horse lacks mane
     3) no inscription

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian I

NOTES: Most are in museums.

157.01

157 - 01    South Thames Banded Type    35-30 B.C.    ER
Partial Iinscription "IVII"
Gold Stater    15 mm    5.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: plain, with bands
Identifying points:
     1) Three raised bands extend across field

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif on horse's shoulder
     2) pellet-in-ring below horse
     3) large ring above horse
     4) horse lacks mane
     5) partial inscription above horse. probable reading—'IVII'

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian I

NOTES: Plate coin reappeared in March, 1987 Muenz Zentrum auction, weight                      recorded in catalogue. Actual weight of existing coin given.

 

Dubnovellaunus in Kent    First Coinage    Cantian J    <info> <info>

Dubnovellaunus in Kent First Coinage

This issue carries the most easily-identified privy marks. The key is that the animals all have pellets under their necks, which disappear on the next issue. Some animals have necklaces and belts, or a curious five-pointed outline star beneath them.

Dubnovellaunus in Kent

Dubnovellaunus' coinage is broken down into three separate issues, each having gold, silver and bronze coins. The dating of these is problematic, but the order may be identified by the increasing Romanization of the designs and the influence of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage on the gold.

The first coinage staters carry a pellet-in-ring motif on the horse's shoulder, but later coins eliminate it. This mirrors the coinage of the Trinovantes/ Catuvellauni Addedomaros' third coinage carries the pellet-in-ring motif, but Dubnovellaunus-in-Essex' and Tasciovanus' coins eliminate it. Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent's second coinage adopts the bucranium above the horse from the staters of Tasciovanus.

Several issues appear to have privy-marks and probably all carry some sort of identification which we are unable to recognize today.

162.01163.01164.01165.01166.01167.01

167.01

167 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    2.1 gms.     14 mm

Earliest Record: De La Tour, 1892

OBV: Celticized boar left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif below boar
     2) pellet-in-ring motif near boar's tail
     3) pellet near boar's tail
     4) wreath above boar

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) five-point outline star below horse
     2) horse raises front leg
     3) pellet-in-ring motif above and below raised leg
     4) pellet below horse's neck
     5) horse has necklace and belt

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: Illustrated coin found in Essex in 1979.
               Second coin in Bibliotheque Nationale; Paris, De La Tour number                     8473.

166.01

166 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    15 mm    2.4-2.7 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) horse's head turned to rear
     2) pellet under neck

REV: Lion left
Identifying points:
     1) Box below lion with DVBN

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: A coin of Cunobeline copies the reverse type of this coin—see 2107-1.                Henig's alternate suggestion the reverses may copy a gem is not                     problematic, one may inspired by a gem, and the other copied from                     it, or both may be derived from similar engraved stones.
               Most are in museums.

165.01

165 - 01 Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Unit     12 mm    0.9-1.1 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Celticized head left
Identifying points:
     1) DVBNO in front of head
     2) head beardless, possibly laureate

REV: Pegasus right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet below neck
     2) Pegasus has necklace and belt
     3) box with cross-hatching below Pegasus
     4) asterisks above and below Pegasus
     5) pellet-in-ring motif behind Pegasus

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: A coin of Cunobeline copies the reverse type of this coin see 2053-1.                Henig's alternate suggestion the reverses may copy a gem is not                     problematic, one may be inspired by a gem, and the other copied                     from it, or both may be derived from similar engraved stones.
               Most are in museums.

164.01

164 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    13 mm

Earliest Record: Allen, 1960

OBV: Serpent-pinwheel
Identifying points:
     1) four-armed pinwheel made of serpents.
     2) pellet-in-ring in centre
     3) bucranium in each angle of pinwheel

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet under neck
     2) pellet-in-ring motif behind horse
     3) horse has necklace and belt
     4) five-point outline star below horse
     5) wavy tail

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: Allen described this coin as a "North Thames Type". The privy marks                      match up with Dubnovellaunus' First Coinage, and the coin may be                      transitional to the Second Coinage, with the bucranium and wavy                      tail motifs. De Jersey, 2001 notes the meagre number of known                      findspots are from Essex, Norfolk or Suffolk. It is impossible to                      determine whether the findspot distribution or the typological                      analysis is the more reliable indicator in this case. The type                      possibly may be Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian, but is listed here                      until further proof is available.
              Most are in museums.

              Rarity reconfirmed 2013.

163.01

163 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm    1.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) Banding slight—only a raised band across centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet under neck
     2) horse has necklace
     3) five-pointed outline star under horse
    4) pellet-in-ring motif above horse with three pellets near it

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: Horse possibly has belt.
                Typical weight given.

162.01

162 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    17 mm    5.4 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) Banding slight—only a raised band across centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet under neck
     2) Inscription above horse
     3) eight-spoked wheel with axle under horse
     4) pellet-in-ring on horse's shoulder
     5) Yoke-like object above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J

NOTES: Coin definitely a Dubnovellaunus in Kent type. The inscription is                      mostly off the flan on all published examples. Allen, perhaps                      reacting to Evan's report of an Essex origin, read it as 'DIRAS'?',                      thereby suggesting a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian origin. Evans                      noted it similar to coins of Dubnovellaunus and Vosenos, but felt                      the coin an Essex type because of a Colchester find. He read the                      inscription as 'DUBORIG'. However, the slightly banded obverse                      proves it Kentish and the privy mark matches up with the other                      coins in the series. Speculatively, 'DOBORTG' is                     "DUBNOVELLAUNUS RIGONIS", abbreviated.
               Typical weight given.

 

 

Dubnovellaunus in Kent    Second Coinage    Cantian K    <info>

Dubnovellaunus in Kent Second Coinage

The Second Coinage deletes the pellet from below the neck, and the bucranium now appears on the gold. The horse's raised leg on the silver and bronze may be a privy mark. In general, the horses are slightly more Romanized, less abstract, than on the First Coinage. Coin 164-1, also carrying the bucranium, may be a transitional silver type between the First and Second coinages.

 

169.01169.01 another170.01171.01173.01

173.01

173 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    15 mm    2.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) DVBNO above boar

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) horse's right front leg raised

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian K

NOTES: A Gaulish origin has also been claimed for this coin.

171.01

171 - 01 Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    13 mm    0.7 gms.

Earliest Record : Evans, 1864

OBV: Uncertain animal right
Identifying points:
     1) DVBN inscription
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs above and behind animal
     3) wavy tail as on 164-1

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motifs above, below and in front of horse
     2) horse's right front leg raised
     3) DVBNO above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian K

170.01

170 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    12 mm    1.1-1.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) banding slight—only a raised band across the centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) rings above horse's head and tail, and in front of animal
     2) 'V-shaped' object above horse (disintegrated bucranium)

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian K

NOTES: Typical weight given.

169.01 another

169 - 01 Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    20 mm    5.1-5.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) banding slight only a raised band across the centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) inscription above horse
     2) bucranium between horse and inscription
     3) pellet-in-ring motifs above horse's head and behind and below animal

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian K

NOTES: Typical weight given.
                The standard weight, which should be about 5.6 gms. is probably not                      revealed because of the small number of recorded coins.
                Inscription DUBNOVELLAUNUS, probably, but uncertain if complete                      legend actually appears.

169.01

169 - 01 Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    20 mm    5.1-5.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) banding slight only a raised band across the centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) inscription above horse
     2) bucranium between horse and inscription
     3) pellet-in-ring motifs above horse's head and behind and below animal

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian K

NOTES: Typical weight given.
                The standard weight, which should be about 5.6 gms. is probably not                      revealed because of the small number of recorded coins.
                Inscription DUBNOVELLAUNUS, probably, but uncertain if complete                      legend actually appears.

 

 

 

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