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Plate 8     Cantian Inscribed Coinage    <info>

Kentish Dynastic Coinages

The first inscribed coins carry an illegible inscription, mostly off the flan on existing pieces. The letters 'IVII' partially appear on one stater, but the reading is uncertain. Hopefully, future finds will enable the full inscription to be read.

The next series of inscribed coins are those of the Kentish Dubnovellaunus, probably a different ruler from the one in Essex. Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent struck coins from about 30 B.C. up to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum, about 10 B.C. At this point, he was replaced by a short-lived ruler, Vosenos, who was in turn replaced by Eppillus of the Atrebates/Regni. Eppillus, sensing a loss of Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian influence, intervened in Kent only to be later driven out by Cunobeline. Eppillus issued special coins for use in Kent; subsequently, Cunobeline's coinage circulated. Between the death of Cunobeline and the Claudian invasion, the brief issues of Amminius appeared.

All Kentish dynastic coinage is extremely rare, with only a few examples of each type known today. The issues must have been small, and would be relatively unimportant except they identify the names of Kentish rulers. For the most part, the economic influences of the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni, and for a short time the Artebates/Regni were the significant factors in Kent.

 

Dubnovellaunus in Kent    Third Coinage    Cantian L    <info>

Dubnovellaunus in Kent Third Coinage

The Third Coinage introduces thoroughly Romanized designs to the silver and bronze. No distinguishing privy mark identifies the series consistently, though the gold and silver have a pronounced pellet-in-ring motif in the field. The Third Coinage's quarter stater awaits discovery.

176.01178.01180.01181.01

181.01

181 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    15 mm    2.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1953

OBV: Boar left
Identifying points:
     1) inscription DVBNO above boar
     2) pellet-in-ring motif below boar

REV: Horseman right
Identifying points:
     1) horseman hold object, possibly carnyx

CLASSlFlCATlON: Cantian L

NOTES: Most are in museums.

180.01

180 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    13 mm    19 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Boar right
Identifying points:
     1) inscription DVBNO between two lines below boar

REV: Eagle standing three-quarters right
Identifying points:
     1) Eagle's wings spread

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian L

NOTES: A coin of Cunobeline's, 2105-1, copies this coin's reverse design.
               Henig suggests the reverse design is adapted from an engraved                     gemstone.
               Most are in museums.

178.01

178 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    14 mm    0.9 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1890

OBV: Horned animal left
Identifying points:
     1) fan-like object above animal
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs below animal
     3) pellet border

REV: Seated metalworker
Identifying points:
     1) man seated on cushion left
     2) man holds hammer
     3) pellet-in-ring motif in front of man
     4) inscription DVBNO behind man

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian L

NOTES: A coin of Cunobeline, 2097-1, copies this coin's reverse design.
               Henig suggests reverse design is adapted from an engraved gemstone.

176.01

176 - 01    Dubnovellaunus in Kent    30-10 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    17 mm    5.6 gms.

Earliest Record: Allen, 1944

OBV: Plain with slight banding
Identifying points:
     1) slight banding—only a raised band across the centre

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) six-spoked wheel with axle below horse
     2) pellet-in-ring above horse
     3) 'sunburst' in front of horse
     4) inscription above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian L

NOTES: Typical weight given, but likely to be the standard weight as well.
                Inscription contains at least the letters DVBNOVT.
                Modern forgery known, see 176-lF.

 

Vosenos    Cantian M    <info>

Vosenos

Vosenos, a short-lived ruler, issued a single coinage. All his types are known in only a handful of examples. On the gold, the banding, seen only slightly on the coinage of Dubnovellaunus, becomes pronounced.

184.01185.01186.01187.01

187.01

187 - 01 Vosenos    10-5 B.C.    ER
Bronze Unit    13 mm    1.9 gms.

Earliest Record: Evand, 1864

OBV: Boar left
Identifying points:
     1) meandering wreath above boar
     2) probable pellet border

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) horse similar to one on stater
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs in field
     3) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian M

NOTES: Most in museums.

186.01

186 - 01    Vosenos    10-5 B.C.    ER
Silver Unit    16 mm    1.1 gms.

Earliest Record: Mack, 1964 (found Canterbury, 1953)

OBV: Horse and griffin
Identifying points:
     1) horse and griffin standing on two legs
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs between animals in ver tical column
     3) pellet-in-ring motifs above animals in row
     4) pellet border

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) three pellet-in-ring motifs in front of horse
     2) pellet-in-ring motifs below exergual line
     3) inscription between two lines diagonally above horse, retrograde, reading         VODENOS or VODENIOS (retrograde)

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian M

185.01

185 - 01    Vosenos    10-5 B.C.    ER
Gold Quarter Stater    11 mm    1.3 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with pronounced bands
Identifying points:
     1) three pronounced, raised bands

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif above horse's rump
     2) ring with six-pointed star above horse
     3) pellet under neck and tail
     4) inscription under horse VOSII
     5) two pellet-in-ring motifs above horse

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian M

NOTES: Typical weight given.

184.01

184 - 01    Vosenos    10-5 B.C.    ER
Gold Stater    17 mm    5.4 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Plain with pronounced bands
Identifying points:
     1) three pronounced, raised bands

REV: Celticized horse left
Identifying points:
     1) pellet-in-ring motif on shoulder, above and in front of horse
     2) bucranium above horse
     3) horned serpent below horse
     4) inscription above horse, contains at least the letters NOS, probably          VOSENOS

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian M

NOTES: Most in museums.
                Typical weight given, also likely to be the standard weight.

 

Amminius    <info coinage after Vosenos>    <info First Coinage>    <info Second Coinage>

Amminius Second Coinage

Amminius' Second Coinage is cruder in execution than the First. The coins are characterized by a Capricorn on the reverse. These are the last Celtic coins struck in Kent, on the eve of the Claudian invasion. A silver minim with an 'A' in an eight-sided star and bird reverse, traditionally assigned to Amminius is actually a coin of Verica (561-01)—a type-series of these was found in the Wanborough Hoard.

Amminius

After Cunobeline's death, a local Kentish ruler appears, Amminius, who strikes two small issues of silver and bronze coins prior to the Roman invasion of 43 A.D.

Amminius First Coinage

The first coinage is made up of coins with Romanized designs. The designs are well-engraved .

Post-Vosenos Coinage

Sometime during the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum, Vosenos disappears and the Atrebatic/Regnan ruler Eppillus appears. Eppillus issues a special coinage for use in Kent, including a Victory stater. The coins point to an invasion with a traveling mint following the invaders. Eppillus' occupation of Kent is also short-lived because Cunobeline drives him out. At this point Cunobeline's coins become the normal coins of Kent for the next thirty years.
For the coins of Eppillus in Kent, refer to the coinage of the Atrebates/Regni, 430-0 to 453-01. The coins of Cunobeline which circulated in Kent are the normal Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian issues.

 

Amminius First Coinage192.01193.01Amminius Second Coinage194.01195.01

195.01

195 - 01    Amminius    38-40 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    13 mm    1.5 gms.

Easrliest Record:

OBV: Head right
Identifying points:
     1) too poorly preserved to see details

REV: Hippocamp right
Identifying points:
     1) as on 194-01

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian O

NOTES: Head probably adapted from denarius of Augustus, but exact type not                      yet identified.
                Design possibly adapted from a gemstone with a hippocamp.

194.01

194 - 01    Amminius    38-40 A.D.    VR
Silver Unit    12 mm    0.8 gms.

Earliest Record: Evans, 1864

OBV: Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) circle inside wreath
     2) letter A inside circle

REV: Hippocamp right
Identifying points:
     1) inscription AM below hippocamp
     2) pellet border

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian O

NOTES: Design possibly adapted from a gemstone with a hippocamp.
                Several were found in the Wanborough Hoard.

193.01

193 - 01    Amminius    35-38 A.D.    ER
Bronze Unit    13 mm    2.5 gms.

Earliest Record:

OBV: Wreath
Identifying points:
     1) box in wreath
     2) inscription AM in wreath

REV: Celticized horse right
Identifying points:
     1) inscription DVNO above exergual line
     2) Horse has left front leg raised

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian N

NOTES: Wanborough finds reported, but cannot be confirmed.

192.01

192 - 01    Amminius    35-38 A.D.    ER
Silver Unit    12 mm    0.9 gms.

Earliest Record: Poste, 1853

OBV: Plant in circle
Identifying points:
     1) plant has seven stalks
     2) inscription around circle AMMINIUS

REV: Pegasus right
Identifying points:
     1) pellet above Pegasus
     2) inscription DVN above exergual line

CLASSIFICATION: Cantian N

NOTES: Obverse possibly adapted from an engraved gemstone with a fruiting                      palm tree design.
                Reverse adapted from a coin of Tasciovanus 1788-01, in turn adapted                      from a Roman denarius of P. Petronius Turpilianus, RIC I                      (Augustus), 115.
               Wanborough finds reported, but cannot be confirmed.

 

 

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