Dubnovellaunus' coinage is broken down into three separate issues, each having gold, silver and bronze coins. The dating of these is problematic, but the order may be identified by the increasing Romanization of the designs and the influence of the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian coinage on the gold.
The first coinage staters carry a pellet-in-ring motif on the horse's shoulder, but later coins eliminate it. This mirrors the coinage of the Trinovantes/ Catuvellauni – Addedomaros' third coinage carries the pellet-in-ring motif, but Dubnovellaunus-in-Essex' and Tasciovanus' coins eliminate it. Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent's second coinage adopts the bucranium above the horse from the staters of Tasciovanus.
Several issues appear to have privy-marks and probably all carry some sort of identification which we are unable to recognize today.
This issue carries the most easily-identified privy marks. The key is that the animals all have pellets under their necks, which disappear on the next issue. Some animals have necklaces and belts, or a curious five-pointed outline star beneath them.
The Second Coinage deletes the pellet from below the neck, and the bucranium now appears on the gold. The horse's raised leg on the silver and bronze may be a privy mark. In general, the horses are slightly more Romanized, less abstract, than on the First Coinage. Coin 164-1, also carrying the bucranium, may be a transitional silver type between the First and Second coinages.
1) Banding slight – only a raised band across centre
REV: Celticized horse right
1) pellet under neck
2) Inscription above horse
3) eight-spoked wheel with axle under horse
4) pellet-in-ring on horse's shoulder
5) Yoke-like object above horse
CLASSIFICATION: Cantian J
- Coin is definitely a Dubnovellaunus in Kent type. The inscription is mostly off the flan on all published examples. Allen, perhaps reacting to Evan's report of an Essex origin, read it as 'DIRAS'?', thereby suggesting a Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian origin. Evans noted it similar to coins of Dubnovellaunus and Vosenos, but felt the coin an Essex type because of a Colchester find. He read the inscription as 'DUBORIG'. However, the slightly banded obverse proves it Kentish and the privy mark matches up with the other coins in the series. Speculatively, 'DOBORIG' is 'DUBNOVELLAUNUS RIGONIS', abbreviated.
- Allen described this coin as a "North Thames Type". The privy marks match up with Dubnovellaunus' First Coinage, and the coin may be transitional to the Second Coinage, with the bucranium and wavy tail motifs.
- De Jersey, 2001 notes the meagre number of known findspots are from Essex, Norfolk or Suffolk. It is impossible to determine whether the findspot distribution or the typological analysis is the more reliable indicator in this case. The type possibly may be Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian, but is listed here until further proof is available.
The first inscribed coins carry an illegible inscription, mostly off the flan on existing pieces. The letters 'IVII' partially appear on one stater, but the reading is uncertain. Hopefully, future finds will enable the full inscription to be read.
The next series of inscribed coins are those of the Kentish Dubnovellaunus, probably a different ruler from the one in Essex. Dubnovellaunus-in-Kent struck coins from about 30 B.C. up to the Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian Interregnum, about 10 B.C. At this point, he was replaced by a short-lived ruler, Vosenos, who was in turn replaced by Eppillus of the Atrebates/Regni/Belgae. Eppillus, sensing a loss of Trinovantian/Catuvellaunian influence, intervened in Kent only to be later driven out by Cunobeline. Eppillus issued special coins for use in Kent; subsequently, Cunobeline's coinage circulated. Between the death of Cunobeline and the Claudian invasion, the brief issues of Amminius appeared.
All Kentish dynastic coinage is extremely rare, with only a few examples of each type known today. The issues must have been small, and would be relatively unimportant except they identify the names of Kentish rulers. For the most part, the economic influences of the Trinovantes/Catuvellauni, and for a short time the Artebates/Regni/Belgae were the significant factors in Kent.